"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] "African Green Growth Strategy – Towards Low-Carbon Growth and Climate Resilient development" (Draft Elements)

[Date] December 6, 2011
[Source] Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
[Full text]

* It was agreed at the Third TICAD Ministerial Follow-up Meeting in Dakar, Republic of Senegal, on May 1-2, 2011, to commence the work to prepare a "Low-Carbon Growth and Sustainable Development Strategy in Africa".

* Japan will work closely with African countries to establish the Strategy which builds a shared medium and long-term vision to promote sustainable and low-carbon growth in Africa. This would also enhance Japan's contribution to the transition toward global Green Economy. The strategy would provide a useful guidance to create a synergy among international partners including Japan in particular, for their assistance and investment to Africa beyond 2012. An interim progress report will be prepared for the Fourth TICAD Ministerial Follow-up Meeting in 2012, and a final report at an appropriate time during 2012.

1. The challenges and opportunities of climate change in Africa

(1) Climate change is one of the core development challenges for Africa. In particular climate change has serious negative effects on vulnerable countries. It is indispensable to deal with the issue properly for the sustainable development and ensuring human security particularly in African countries. At the same time, Africa has a huge potential in its green growth such as in the renewable energy field while the investment in this field is increasing.

It is important for the African Governments to aim at a "climate resilient growth" by overcoming vulnerability to climate change utilizing assistance from the international community, and to accelerate their development through green growth including in the renewable energy field.

(2) In the area of climate change, many African countries have already designed their own development strategy in order to meet various needs of development based on their specific circumstances, development priorities and other social and cultural elements. But country-level action is not sufficient and regional cooperation has also been developing in Africa to deal jointly with common issues. Such regional / cross border cooperation needs to be further enhanced both in areas of adaptation and mitigation.

(3) Based on the ownership of African countries and each country' priorities, the strategy aims for promoting sustainable and comprehensive economic growth by establishing a regionally common mid-and-long term vision to be shared by African countries and their development partners.

2. Goal and Principles of the Strategy

< Goal >* Assist African countries to pursue "African Green Growth" (adaptation + mitigation) pathways

* Aim at green growth by promoting mitigation efforts as well as overcoming challenges of African countries in adaptation area.

< Principle >(1) Combination of adaptation and mitigation

* Deal with the issue of adaptation with a sense of urgency, considering the fact that problems caused by climate change are obstacles to the development of Africa.

* Promote development in each sector paying due consideration to climate change in order to achieve economic growth in a balanced manner, preserving the environment.

* Consider sectoral efforts, reflecting NAMAs and NAPs of each country, and regional needs as well as cross-sectoral issues.

* Apply transfer of appropriate technology suitable to different level of development of African countries.

(2)Enhancement of country ownership

* Enhance country ownership in climate change planning and implementation at the highest level.

* Promote engagement of a broader range of stakeholders.

* Ensure complementarity with existing national / cross border / regional strategies and initiatives.

(3) Enhancement of partnership between public and private sector

* Share widely the strategy with the private sector in order to promote the cooperation between public and private sectors and to increase possibilities of private investment toand within Africa by using public finance as leverage.

* Enhance partnership between public and private stakeholder to stimulate job creation and employment opportunities specially for the youth.

(4) Improvement of coordination among development partners for the future climate finance

* Promote utilization of this strategy as a guideline for African countries and development partners (such as donor countries, Civil Society Organization(CSO)), to promote coordination of policies and plans designed by each country and region as well as cooperation between bilateral and multilateral assistance base on the learned from the past and existing initiatives in this area.

* Expect that the international community will use this strategy in a long-term climate finance, including the Green Climate Fund, for its assistance to Africa.

* Promote coordination of sectoral efforts at national and regional levels.

3. Sectoral efforts in the Strategy

(1) Energy

* The lack of energy supply prevents industrial development, reduces opportunities to receive education and medical care, and thus leads to lingering poverty in Africa. On the other hand, a due consideration to the environment as well as securing stable energy supply is required since the energy demand would expand significantly in the process of economic growth.

* Proper measures should be considered to improve energy access by utilization of renewable energy including water, solar, geothermal, biomass and wind power, and by improvement of power grid.

* Proper measures should also be considered to promote efficient energy usage.

(2) Agriculture

* Considering the necessity of ensuring food security resilient to the negative impact of climate change, the increase of food production and measures to improve agricultural productivity is required urgently.

* The improvement of crop varieties, the development/enhancement of agricultural technologies and infrastructure for agriculture such as irrigation, livestock farming, postharvest system, cultivation methods etc. in order to address climate change should be considered.

(3) Forest

* Africa is one of the areas that has recorded the highest forest reduction rate in the world. Serious deforestation would amplify the magnitude and frequency of natural disaster such as droughts and flood, and would negatively affect agriculture.

* To reduce deforestation, measures such as promoting REDD+ projects should be considered.

(4) Disaster reduction

* As in the case of severe drought in the Horn of Africa, large scale natural disasters have taken place frequently in recent years in Africa, which affect seriously its social and economic system. Due to enormous damages to the poor, collateral disaster such as massive refugees would last for a long time.

* To prevent these problems, providing emergency support in the case of natural disaster such as floods, droughts, erosion of coastal areas and land slide, and promoting capacity development to tackle future possible disaster should be considered for all level of society.

(5)Water supply (including sanitation)

* Water supply and sanitation which are important issues related to human life are vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change.

* Building clean water supply and sanitation facilities including waste disposal sites, improving access to clean water and training human resources related to water resource (including underground water) management should be considered.

(6) Transportation

* Enhancing transportation infrastructure is needed for sustainable economic growth. In this connection, not only in-country but also various regional transportation infrastructures need to be developed.

* Clean and efficient transportation infrastructure development should be considered paying due consideration to the environment and the need to resist possible natural disasters.

(7) Cross-sectoral issues

* As for cross-sectoral issues, it is required to promote human resource development, enhancement of institutional capability, data collection, knowledge sharing and accumulation, as well as domestic and international policy dialogue on climate change in a gender sensitive manner. From this view point, the technical cooperation assisting African countries to elaborate low-carbon growth strategies should be considered.

* The way to promote the utilization of CDM and bilateral offset credit mechanism in Africa as well as to enhance the related capacity development should be considered, taking into account the importance of establishing a financial mechanism for climate change and the utilization of green technologies.

* In some sectors, the enhanced utilization of private finance is useful for sustainable economic development and technology transfer. In this regard, increasing private finance catalyzed by public finance and introducing a base of pyramid business are required. As one of these efforts, Japan is now carrying out the "three L" projects named after "Lighting" (support for electrification), "Lifting" (improving the industrial infrastructure), and "Linking" (improving communications networks) , and will continue its efforts.

* Because of the importance of the understanding of climate change policy among general public including local communities, information dissemination and advocacy on climate change policy should be promoted.