"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] National Security Strategy of Japan

[Date] December 16, 2022
[Source] Japan Ministry of Defense
[Notes] Provisional Translation
[Full text]

I Purpose

The international community is facing changes defining an era. We are reminded once again that globalization and interdependence alone cannot serve as a guarantor for peace and development across the globe. The free, open, and stable international order, which expanded worldwide in the post-Cold War era, is now at stake with serious challenges amidst historical changes in power balances and intensifying geopolitical competitions. Meanwhile, a host of issues such as climate change and infectious disease crises are emerging, requiring cross-border cooperation among nations. Today, we are in an era where confrontation and cooperation are intricately intertwined in international relations.

To date, advanced democratic countries, including Japan, have devoted themselves to upholding universal values such as freedom, democracy, respect for fundamental human rights, and the rule of law, and to spearheading the effort to shape the international society of coexistence and coprosperity. Numerous countries around the world, including developing countries, have also enjoyed the fruits of international peace, stability, and economic development in this globalized world rooted in such order.

At the same time, however, dissatisfaction stemming from widening economic disparities and other factors are generating renewed feelings of tensions at the domestic level and even in inter-state relations. Guided by their own historical views and values, some nations, not sharing universal values, are making attempts to revise the existing international order. In the course of almost a century, humanity has invested itself in defining a fundamental international principle of the general prohibition of the use of force. Yet, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council (hereinafter referred to as the "UN Security Council"), which has the primary responsibility of maintaining international peace and security, has overtly trampled on this very principle. This is coupled with ongoing unilateral changes to the status quo and such attempts at sea. In addition, some states, not sharing universal values, are exploiting unique approaches to rapidly develop their economies and science technologies, and then, in some areas, are gaining superiorities over those states that have defended academic freedom and market- economy principles. These moves challenge the existing international order, thereby intensifying geopolitical competitions in international relations. In the face of that, many developing and other nations are striving to avoid embroiling themselves in geopolitical competitions. We are even observing that some states are now following the lead of those not sharing universal values.

At a time when geopolitical competition is intensifying, issues are arising elsewhere in the world which call for global cooperation at large. We live in an era where there is a greater imperative than ever before for the international community to rally together in cooperation beyond differences in values, conflicts of interest, and others for the sake of taking on those global challenges that transcend national borders and put the very existence of humankind at risk such as climate change and infectious disease crises.

Turning our eyes to the neighboring region, Japan's security environment is as severe and complex as it has ever been since the end of World War II. Russia's aggression against Ukraine has easily breached the very foundation of the rules that shape the international order. The possibility cannot be precluded that a similar serious situation may arise in the future in the Indo-Pacific region, especially in East Asia. Across the globe, historical changes in power balances, particularly in the Indo-Pacific region, are occurring. In addition, in the vicinity of Japan, military buildups, including of nuclear weapons and missiles, are rapidly advancing, coupled with mounting pressures by unilaterally changing the status quo by force. Moreover, grey zone situations over territories, cross- border cyberattacks on critical civilian infrastructures, and information warfare through spread of disinformation, are constantly taking place, thereby further blurring the boundary between contingency and peacetime. Furthermore, the scope of national security has expanded to include those fields previously considered non-military such as economic, technological and others, and thus the boundary between military and non- military fields is no longer clear-cut either.

Japan also faces difficult domestic challenges such as a declining and aging population with a low fertility rate and a severe fiscal condition. With a view to resolving these challenging economic and social agendas at home and to bringing about economic growth, Japan must ensure an international environment that is conducive to facilitating cross- border economic and social activities such as trade of goods, energy, and food which are essential for industries, and the movement of people.

We live in the world of a historical inflection point and in the face of the most severe and complex security environment since the end of WWII. Against this backdrop, Japan must protect its own national interests, including the peace, security and prosperity of Japan, the safety of its people, and the coexistence and coprosperity of the international community by steadfastly preparing for the worst-case scenario, including fundamental reinforcement of its defense capabilities. To this end, we will strive to proactively foster a desirable security environment for Japan by carrying out vigorous diplomacy. In addition, possessing defense capabilities, which enable Japan to firmly defend itself on its own, will indeed bolster the solid footing of Japan's diplomacy.

To achieve these objectives, Japan needs a strategy that integrates its national responses at a higher level by taking a panoramic view of the diverse dimensions of international relations as a whole, where confrontation and cooperation are intricately intertwined, including geopolitical competition and responses to global-scale challenges, and then by taking full advantage of comprehensive national power, including diplomatic, defense, economic, technological, and intelligence capabilities. From this standpoint, the Government of Japan hereby sets forth the National Security Strategy as its supreme national security policy document. The Strategy provides strategic guidance for Japan's national security policy areas, including diplomacy, defense, economic security, technology, cyber, maritime, space, intelligence, official development assistance (ODA), and energy.

Japan's first-ever National Security Strategy (decided by the National Security Council and approved by the Cabinet Decision on December 17, 2013) was formulated in 2013. Guided by the policy of Proactive Contribution to Peace based on the principle of the international cooperation, the Legislation for Peace and Security was enacted. By so doing, the Government has put arrangements in place where Japan can seamlessly respond to situations concerning security. While maintaining the fundamental principles of the Japanese national security, grounded in these arrangements, the strategic guidance and policies under this Strategy will dramatically transform Japan's national security policy after the end of WWII from the aspect of its execution.

Meanwhile, the exercise of power as a nation begins with the determination of its people. In order to steadily execute the Strategy, which encompasses a broad range of fields beyond the traditional boundaries of diplomacy and defense, it is essential for the Government to gain the understanding and cooperation of its people regarding the content and execution of the Strategy and to foster an environment in which they can voluntarily and proactively participate in Japan's security policy.

The Strategy consists of the following:

The Strategy first outlines Japan's national interests, which should serve as the starting point in defining a national security strategy. Then, based on these national interests, the Strategy lays out basic principles concerning Japan's national security that have been nurtured over the course of the postwar security history and experiences as well as by the choices of the Japanese people. Additionally, it presents the current security environment surrounding Japan and its security challenges. On this basis, it sets out national security objectives that Japan should achieve, and identifies ways and means, namely through strategic approaches, by which it can deliver on the objectives through capitalizing on the Japanese comprehensive national power. Then, the Strategy puts forward various foundations of Japan, which sustain the execution of the strategic approaches.

II Japan's National Interests

Japan's national interests to be preserved and developed are listed below:

1. Japan will maintain its sovereignty and independence, defend its territorial integrity, and secure the safety of life, person, and properties of its nationals. Japan will ensure its survival while maintaining its own peace and security grounded in freedom and democracy and preserving its rich culture and traditions. Furthermore, Japan and its nationals will continue to strive so that Japan and its nationals are respected and favorably regarded around the world.

2. Japan will achieve the prosperity of Japan and its nationals through economic growth, thereby consolidating its own peace and security. And, while working to realize Japan's economic prosperity, Japan will maintain and strengthen an open and stable international economic order and achieve an international environment in which Japan and other countries can coexist and prosper together.

3. Japan will maintain and protect universal values, such as freedom, democracy, respect for fundamental human rights and the rule of law, and international order based on international law. In particular, Japan will maintain and develop a free and open international order, especially in the Indo-Pacific region where Japan is situated.

III Fundamental Principles Concerning Japan's National Security

As a prerequisite for the execution of Japan's national security policy in pursuit of protecting its national interests, the following are the fundamental principles concerning Japan's national security.

1. Japan will maintain the policy of "Proactive Contribution to Peace" based on international cooperation. In order to further embody this principle in the international community and to protect our own national interests in the time ahead, and based on the recognition that the primary responsibility for defending Japan lies with itself, Japan will squarely face the ever-changing security environment by decisively taking on necessary reforms and reinforcing our national security capabilities and roles.

2. Japan will execute its security policy in a manner that maintains and upholds universal values such as freedom, democracy, respect for fundamental human rights, and the rule of law. As one of the most mature and stable advanced democratic countries in the world, even amidst a complex and severe security environment, Japan will strive to maintain and uphold universal values and principles in cooperation with other countries, and lead the international community by example.

3. As a peace-loving nation, Japan will adhere to the basic policy of maintaining an exclusively national defense-oriented policy, not becoming a military power that poses a threat to other countries, and observing the Three Non-Nuclear Principles.

4. The Japan-U.S. Alliance, including the provision of extended deterrence, will remain the cornerstone of Japan's national security policy.

5. Japan will attach importance to coexistence and coprosperity alongside other countries, cooperation with like-minded countries, and multilateral cooperation.

IV Security Environment Surrounding Japan and Japan's National Security Challenges

In defining its national security objectives, the security environment surrounding Japan and its national security challenges are listed below.

1. Global Security Environment and Challenges

(1) Since the formation of the previous National Security Strategy in 2013, the international community has consistently gone through rapid changes, in conjunction with the center of gravity of global power shifting to the Indo- Pacific region, where Japan is situated. These changes are likely to carry on over the medium-to-long term and to have historical consequences that will transform the nature of the international community.

(2) Many opportunities and benefits are presented worldwide such as economic development, technological innovation, people-to-people exchanges, and the creation of new cultures. At the same time, however, it is becoming increasingly difficult for the United States, Japan's ally with the world's greatest comprehensive power, and international frameworks such as the G7 to manage risks in the international community and to maintain and develop a free and open international order. The United Nations, which should embody the will of the international community at large, has experienced a round of confrontation and thus has not fully lived up to fulfilling its functions. This is largely due to the fact that nations, not sharing universal values, or political and economic systems based on such values in common, are expanding their influences, thereby manifesting risks around the globe. Specifically, some states, which do not exclude the policy of increasing their own national interests at the expense of others, are expanding their influence through both military and non-military means, attempting to unilaterally change the status quo, and accelerating actions to challenge the international order. Such moves have sharpened competition and confrontation among states in wide-ranging areas, including military, diplomatic, economic, and technological fields, and have shaken the foundation of the international order. As a result, the current international security environment has become complex and severe, one where inter-state relations and interests of each and every nation are intertwined with each other in a mosaic-like manner.

(3) The following are prominent examples of the complexity and severity of the current international security environment.

(i) Unilateral changes to the status quo by force and such attempts against the territorial sovereignty and others of other nations are taking place, combined with military and non-military means. In particular, Russia's aggression against Ukraine constitutes a serious violation of international law prohibiting the use of force, and shakes the very foundation of the international order.

(ii) In cyber, maritime, space, and electromagnetic domains, and other areas, the risks that impede free access to and utilization of these areas are becoming increasingly serious. In particular, the threat of cyberattacks, in which the risk of exposure is relatively low and attackers have an advantage, is growing rapidly. Cyberattacks have been used constantly to disable or destroy critical infrastructures, interfere in foreign elections, demand ransoms, and steal sensitive information, even in the form of state-sponsored cyberattacks. It is highly likely that hybrid warfare, combining military and non-military means to achieve military objectives such as information warfare which utilizes the spread of disinformation prior to an armed attack, will be conducted in an even more sophisticated form in the time ahead.

(iii) Addressing those issues not necessarily deemed as security targets in the past, such as supply chain vulnerabilities, increasing threats to critical infrastructures, and leadership struggles over advanced technologies, has also become a major security challenge. As a result, the scope of security has expanded to include the economic sector, making economic measures even more necessary to ensure security.

(iv) In the field of international trade and economic cooperation, which in principle should be mutually beneficial, some nations are trying to expand their own influence by economically coercing other nations through such means as restricting the exports of mineral resources, food, and industrial and medical supplies, as well as providing loans to other nations in a manner that ignores their debt sustainability.

(v) As major nations increase competition in advanced technology research and the use of its outcomes for security and other purposes, some nations are illegally stealing information related to advanced technologies developed by private companies, universities, and other organizations in other countries and using it for their own military purposes.

(vi) Due to the changing power balances and diversifying values around the world, strong leadership is being lost in the global governance structure at large. As a result, the international community is presented with greater difficulties to rally together in taking on common challenges such as climate change, free trade, arms control, disarmament, non-proliferation, terrorism, global health including measures against infectious diseases, and food and energy issues. In addition, vulnerable countries in the Middle East, Africa, and the Pacific Islands are disproportionally suffering large damages from extreme weather and reduction of land area due to climate change, the global spread of infectious diseases, and shortages of food and energy.

2. Security Environment and Challenges in the Indo-Pacific Region

The global security environment and challenges articulated above are particularly prominent in the Indo-Pacific region, where Japan is situated, and its severity may be on the rise in the future. In this regard, the security environment and challenges in the Indo- Pacific region, including notable trends of countries and regions in particular, are as follows.

(1) Overview of Security in the Indo-Pacific Region

The Indo-Pacific region is the core of global vitality, home to more than half of the world's population. The dynamism of the intersection of the Pacific and the Indian Oceans is a growth engine for the global economy. Japan, situated in this region, is well positioned to benefit from this.

At the same time, the Indo-Pacific region faces a host of security challenges. For example, several nations and regions that possess large military forces, including nuclear weapons, do not share universal values, nor political and economic systems based on such universal values. There exists a complex intertwining of diplomatic and other relations based on historical backgrounds. In addition, Japan faces threats and challenges of various types and intensities, such as unilateral changes to the status quo and such attempts in the East and South China Seas and other areas, piracy, terrorism, the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and natural disasters. Guided by the vision of a Free and Open Indo-Pacific (hereinafter referred to as "FOIP"), in the Indo-Pacific region, Japan has the vital importance of striving to realize a free and open international order based on the rule of law and securing regional peace and stability in cooperation with its ally, like-minded countries and others.

(2) China's Activities in the Area of Security

China has set clear goals to achieve "the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation," the full completion of "building China into a great modern socialist country" by the middle of this century, and the prompt buildup of the People's Liberation Army to be elevated to "world-class standards." Under these national goals, China has been increasing its defense expenditures at a continuously high level and extensively and rapidly enhancing its military power, including its nuclear and missile capabilities, without sufficient transparency.

In addition, China has intensified its attempts to unilaterally change the status quo by force in the maritime and air domains including in the East and South China Seas, such as its intrusions into the territorial waters and airspace around the Senkaku Islands, and has expanded and intensified its military activities that affect Japan's national security in the Sea of Japan, the Pacific Ocean, and other areas as well. Furthermore, China is strengthening its strategic ties with Russia and attempting to challenge the international order.

The international community strongly urges China, the second largest economy in the world and one of the major countries leading today's global economy, to make further efforts to address global issues, including climate change, in a manner befitting its international influence. Yet, China does not participate in international frameworks in which other major official creditor nations take part in together, and its development finance and other related activities lack adequate transparency. In addition, China is redoubling its strategic efforts to establish its security in the economic field, and there have been instances of China taking advantage of other countries' dependence on China to exert economic pressure on other countries.

While maintaining its policy of peaceful reunification of Taiwan, China has not denied the possibility of using military force. In addition, China has been intensifying its military activities in the sea and airspace surrounding Taiwan, including the launch of ballistic missiles into the waters around Japan. Regarding peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait, concerns are mounting rapidly, not only in the Indo-Pacific region including Japan, but also in the entire international community.

It is expected that China contributes, together with Japan, to the peace and stability of the international community including the Indo-Pacific region, through building constructive relations with the international community via communications at various levels including at the summit level as well as repeating dialogue and cooperation with the international community, including Japan.

However, China's current external stance, military activities, and other activities have become a matter of serious concern for Japan and the international community, and present an unprecedented and the greatest strategic challenge in ensuring the peace and security of Japan and the peace and stability of the international community, as well as in strengthening the international order based on the rule of law, to which Japan should respond with its comprehensive national power and in cooperation with its ally, like-minded countries and others.

(3) North Korea's Activities in the Area of Security

In the Korean Peninsula, the large-scale military forces of the Republic of Korea (ROK) and North Korea are in confrontation with one another. North Korea has not carried out the dismantlement of all weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles of all ranges in a complete, verifiable and irreversible manner, in accordance with a series of relevant UN Security Council resolutions. While facing serious economic difficulties without any improvement in its human rights situation to date, North Korea continues to heavily allocate its resources to military affairs.

In recent years, North Korea has repeatedly launched ballistic missiles with an unprecedented frequency and in new ways, rapidly enhancing its capabilities. In particular, North Korea is making rapid progress in its missile-related technologies and operational capabilities, exemplified by its launching of Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM)-class ballistic missiles with a range covering the U.S. mainland, launching missiles in new ways including missiles flying with irregular trajectories, and launching missiles from various platforms such as Transporter- Erector-Launcher (TEL), submarines, and trains.

Furthermore, North Korea intends to bolster its nuclear capabilities both in quality and in quantity at the maximum speed. When considered together with its rapid development of missile-related technologies, North Korea's military activities pose an even more grave and imminent threat to Japan's national security than ever before. The issue of abductions by North Korea is a critical issue concerning the sovereignty of Japan and the lives and safety of Japanese citizens. It is an urgent issue for the Government to resolve under its responsibility. It is also a universal issue for the international community to take on as a violation of basic human rights.

(4) Russia's Activities in the Area of Security

Russia's aggression against Ukraine and its other actions clearly demonstrate that it does not hesitate to resort to military forces to achieve its own security objectives. In addition, Russia continues to repeat words and actions that could be interpreted as threats to use of nuclear weapons.

Russia is accelerating its military activities in the vicinity of Japan. Russia is also strengthening its armaments in the Northern Territories, which is an inherent territory of Japan. This is presumably due to the background that the Sea of Okhotsk plays as an area of activity for strategic nuclear submarines, an important part in Russia's strategic nuclear forces.

Furthermore, Russia has been doubling down on strategic coordination with China. In particular, in recent years, these two countries have ramped up their military coordination by continuing to conduct joint exercises and drills, such as joint navigation by their naval vessels and joint flights of their bombers in the vicinity of Japan.

By its recent aggression against Ukraine and others, Russia's external and military activities and others have shaken the very foundation of the international order, and are perceived as the most significant and direct threat to security in the European region. In addition, Russia's external and military activities and others in the Indo- Pacific region, including Japan, together with its strategic coordination with China, are of strong security concern.

V National Security Objectives of Japan

The following are the national security objectives of Japan to ensure its national interests in the face of the above-mentioned national security challenges. These objectives are grounded in the fundamental principles of Japan's national security as outlined in III.

1. Japan will continue to be a nation capable of protecting its sovereignty and independence, autonomously determining its domestic and foreign policies, and defending its territory and the safety of life, person, and the properties of its nationals. To this end, Japan will reinforce its own capabilities and roles, and together with its ally, the United States, and like-minded countries and others, deter contingencies and attempts to unilaterally change the status quo in Japan and its vicinity. If by any chance a threat should reach Japan, Japan will disrupt and defeat the threat and minimize the damage caused, and bring it to an end in a manner favorable to protecting its national interests.

2. Japan will proactively ensure, through executing its security policy, an international environment in which its own economy can grow. By doing so, Japan will work to achieve a virtuous cycle of security and economic growth, in which economic growth promotes the improvement of the security environment surrounding Japan. Concurrently, Japan will ensure the self-reliance of its economic structure, as well as advantages over other countries and ultimately the indispensability of its technologies.

3. As a major global actor, Japan will join together with its ally, like-minded countries and others to achieve a new balance in international relations, especially in the Indo- Pacific region. In so doing, Japan will prevent the emergence of situations in which any one state can unilaterally change the status quo easily, and redouble efforts to secure a stable, predictable, free and open international order based on the rule of law.

4. Japan will work on multilateral cooperation in the fields of international economy, response to global issues such as climate change and infectious diseases, and the formation of international rules and regulations, and then generate an environment in which the international community can coexist and coprosper.

VI Strategic Approaches Prioritized by Japan

Japan will implement strategic approaches to achieve its national security objectives, harnessing its comprehensive national power as an integrated and efficient means.

1. Main Elements of Comprehensive National Power for Japan's National Security

(1) First is diplomatic capabilities. The basis of national security is to proactively create a peaceful, stable, and highly predictable international environment based on the rule of law and to prevent the emergence of threats. Over the years, Japan has devoted itself to diplomatic undertakings and international cooperation to promote peace, stability, and prosperity worldwide. Rooted in these traditions and experiences, and guided by significantly enhanced diplomatic implementation architecture, Japan will continue to nurture relations of trust with many countries, engage in diplomatic efforts to gain understanding and support for its country's position, and carry forward international cooperation with the aim of pursuing coexistence and coprosperity with other countries.

(2) Second is defense capabilities. These capabilities are the last guarantee of Japan's national security and embody the will and ability to resolutely defend our nation. In light of the current reality of the world, this function cannot be replaced by any other means. By means of defense capabilities, Japan will deter threats from reaching it, and if threats are indeed posed to Japan, it will disrupt and defeat them. In addition, fundamentally reinforced defense capabilities will bolster the solid footing of our diplomacy for proactively fostering a desirable security environment for Japan.

(3) Third is economic capabilities. Economic capabilities are the foundation of policies to achieve a peaceful and stable security environment. As the world's third largest economy and a major player in shouldering an open and stable international economic order, Japan will undertake free and fair trade and investment activities. In addition, Japan will provide high value-added goods and services that are indispensable to the global supply chain to accomplish its economic growth.

(4) Fourth is technological capabilities. The creation of science, technology, and innovation is the source of Japan's own economic and social development. In addition, the appropriate use of technological capabilities plays a crucial role in improving Japan's national security environment and is also indispensable in addressing global issues such as climate change. Japan will actively capitalize on its advanced technological capabilities, developed over the years in the public and private sectors in the field of national security,, without being bound by its conventional way of thinking.

(5) Fifth is intelligence capabilities. In a rapidly and complexly changing security environment, the collection and analysis of high-quality and timely information is essential for the Government to make accurate decisions. To this end, under close cooperation between the policy and intelligence departments, and through comprehensive analyses utilizing all means of collection and sources of information possessed by the Government, information on national security should be obtained as early and accurately as possible, and shared and utilized within and outside the Government. In addition, the Government and the private sector will work on information security to prevent leakage of critical information on its national security.

2. Strategic Approaches and Major Ways and Means

(1) Develop Efforts Centered on Diplomacy to Prevent Crises, Proactively Create a Peaceful and Stable International Environment, and Strengthen a Free and Open International Order

(i) Strengthen the Japan-U.S. Alliance

The Japan-U.S. Alliance, with the Japan-U.S. security arrangements at its core, plays an indispensable role not only for the security of Japan but also for the realization of peace and stability in the international community, including in the Indo-Pacific region. In particular, for the U.S. commitment to the region to be maintained and strengthened, deepened cooperation between Japan and the U.S. at a concrete level in the Indo-Pacific region is of vital importance. Bearing these considerations in mind, Japan, while ensuring the bilateral coordination at its strategic levels, will work in coordination with the United States to strengthen the Japan-U.S. Alliance in all areas, including diplomacy, defense, and economy.

(ii) Maintain and Develop a Free and Open International Order and Strengthen Ties with its Ally, Like-minded Countries and Others

As a nation in the Indo-Pacific region, Japan will further promote efforts to realize a FOIP by deepening cooperation with like-minded countries through the Japan-U.S. Alliance as a cornerstone and through efforts such as the Japan-U.S.-Australia-India (Quad) partnership. To this end, Japan will strive to make the vision of a FOIP more universal around the world, create rules to expand the free and fair economic zone, improve connectivity, empower governance of countries and international organizations, and expand efforts to ensure maritime security.

Japan will also further enhance diplomatic engagement with developing countries, which are economically growing and becoming more influential in the international arena. By doing so, Japan, together with as many countries as possible, will strengthen a free and open international order based on the rule of law.

Furthermore, Japan will build a multilayered network among its ally and like-minded countries, expand it, and strengthen deterrence. Thus, while utilizing frameworks such as the Japan-U.S.-ROK, and Japan-U.S.-Australia, Japan will enhance security cooperation with Australia, India, the ROK, European countries, ASEAN countries, Canada, NATO, EU, and others. Specifically, Japan will promote enhanced engagement with like-minded countries and others in the Indo-Pacific region through bilateral and multilateral dialogues, bilateral training and exercises, conclusions of information protection agreements, Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA), Reciprocal Access Agreement (RAA), joint development of defense equipment, transfer of defense equipment and technology, capacity building support, strategic communication, and Flexible Deterrent Options (FDO).

(iii) Strengthen Diplomacy with Japan's Neighboring Countries and Regions as well as Efforts toward Resolution of Various Issues of Concern, including Territorial Issues

Both Japan and China have important responsibilities for the peace and prosperity of the region and the international community. Japan will build a "constructive and stable relationship" with China through communication at various levels, in which Japan asserts its position and calls for responsible actions, while continuing dialogue including on issues of concern and cooperation on matters of common interests. This is essential for peace and stability in the international community, including in the Indo- Pacific region.

Japan will strongly oppose China's growing attempts to unilaterally change the status quo by force, demand it to not conduct such activities, and respond in a calm and resolute manner. Additionally, with regard to China's rapid strengthening of its military capabilities and expansion of military activities, Japan will strongly encourage China to improve transparency and to cooperate constructively with international efforts for arms control, disarmament and other such efforts, in cooperation with its ally, like- minded countries and others. Furthermore, in order to nurture a relationship of trust, Japan will enhance communication with China in the security field. Japan will also promote efforts, including the establishment of a framework for avoiding and preventing the occurrence of unforeseen situations with China.

At the same time, based on the recognition that it is possible to cooperate with China in the fields of economy and people-to-people exchange in a mutually beneficial way, Japan will develop appropriate economic relations in a manner that contributes to Japan's economic development and economic security, and revitalize people to people exchanges with China. In addition, in cooperation with its ally and like-minded countries as well as with international organizations and others, Japan will cooperate with China in areas that need to be tackled together such as global issues, while encouraging China to comply with international rules and standards, increase its own transparency and predictability, and play a responsible and constructive role commensurate with its international influence.

Japan's relationship with Taiwan has been maintained as a non-governmental working relationship based on the Japan-China Joint Communique in 1972. Japan's basic position regarding Taiwan remains unchanged. Taiwan is an extremely important partner and a precious friend of Japan, with whom Japan shares fundamental values, including democracy, and has close economic and personal ties. Peace and stability across the Taiwan Strait is an indispensable element for the security and prosperity of the international community, and Japan will continue to make various efforts based on its position that the cross-strait issues are expected to be resolved peacefully.

The ROK is a highly important neighboring country to Japan both in a geopolitical context and in regard to Japan's security. With the response to North Korea and other issues in mind, Japan will enhance Japan-ROK and Japan-U.S.-ROK strategic coordination, including in the area of security. To this end, Japan will communicate closely with the ROK in order to develop Japan-ROK relations based on the foundation of the friendly and cooperative relations that have developed since the normalization of diplomatic relations in 1965. Japan will also appropriately address issues of concern between the two nations, based on its consistent positions. With regard to the issue over the sovereignty of Takeshima, which is an inherent territory of Japan, Japan will make persevering diplomatic efforts, based on the principle of peaceful resolution of conflicts in accordance with international law, and responding firmly based on the consistent position of Japan.

With regard to North Korea's nuclear and missile development, Japan will urge North Korea to take concrete actions toward its complete denuclearization, based on the Joint Statement of the Six-Party Talks and relevant UN Security Council resolutions through strengthening regional deterrence, fully implementing sanctions against North Korea, including those based on UN Security Council resolutions, and pursuing diplomatic efforts in close coordination with the U.S. and the ROK. Concerning Japan- North Korea relations, Japan will endeavor to achieve a comprehensive resolution of outstanding issues of concern, such as the abductions, nuclear and missile issues, in accordance with the Japan-DPRK Pyongyang Declaration. In particular, it is the basic recognition of Japan that normalization of relations with North Korea will not be possible without resolving the abductions issue, a serious humanitarian issue with a time constraint. Japan will make every effort to ensure the safety of all abductees and realize their immediate return at the earliest possible date, investigate the truth regarding the abductions, and transfer those who executed the abductions.

With regard to the relations with Russia, Japan will respond in a manner that protects its own national interests in light of the severe security environment in the Indo-Pacific region. In addition, Japan will prevent Russia from taking actions that undermine the peace, stability, and prosperity of the international community, while cooperating with its ally and like-minded countries and others. As for the Northern Territories issue, which is the greatest concern regarding our diplomacy with Russia, Japan's basic policy of concluding a peace treaty through the resolution of the territorial issue remains unchanged.

(iv) Arms Control, Disarmament, and Non-proliferation

Japan will further strengthen its efforts in arms control, disarmament, and non- proliferation, in order to improve its security environment and realize peace and stability around the world by halting and reversing the trend of arms buildup, including nuclear weapons, in the vicinity of Japan, and to prevent the occurrence of situations such as threats of nuclear weapons. Specifically, Japan, as the only country to have ever suffered atomic bombings in war, will spearhead international efforts in realizing a "world without nuclear weapons." Taking into account regional non-proliferation issues such as North Korea and Iran, Japan will maintain and strengthen the international nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation regime, with the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) at its cornerstone, and steadily promote practical and realistic efforts while appropriately addressing present international security challenges.

In addition, Japan will undertake non-proliferation policy with a focus on preserving and bolstering the international export control regime to prevent the proliferation of weapons and related sensitive technologies, implementing appropriate non- proliferation measures domestically, and supporting capacity building of each country. With regard to biological, chemical, and conventional weapons, Japan will actively engage in multilateral efforts and rule-making, including on the Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems (LAWS).

(v) International Counter-Terrorism

Acts of terrorism are unjustifiable regardless of their motivation and must be firmly condemned. Japan will take a firm position against them and take counter-terrorism measures in coordination with the international community. In this regard, Japan will promote measures against international terrorism and take thorough steps to ensure the security of critical facilities for the livelihoods of its people such as nuclear power plants in Japan. Furthermore, Japan will build arrangements to cooperate with others such as foreign countries and corporate enterprises, including information sharing, to ensure the safety of Japanese nationals and others overseas.

In addition, Japan will reinforce its mechanisms and capabilities for collecting and analyzing information on the international terrorism situation.

(vi) Climate Change Measures

Climate change is a security issue that affects the very existence of humankind. Extreme weather events due to climate change significantly impact Japan's national security in various ways including through more frequent and severer natural disasters, increased responses to disasters, more serious energy and food problems, a decrease in national land area, and increased use of the Arctic sea routes.

Japan will lead the way in advancing efforts both at home and abroad with all stakeholders, including its ally and like-minded countries. Specifically, Japan will embark on initiatives toward the realization of a decarbonized society through structural transformation of the energy and industrial sectors, including maximizing the use of renewable and nuclear energies, and the creation of innovation through bold investments in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 46% from FY 2013 in FY 2030, and realize net-zero by 2050.

Japan will also stand at the forefront in galvanizing global efforts for minimizing negative impacts of climate change upon the international security environment. As part of these efforts, Japan will provide assistance to island nations and other developing countries where climate change poses imminent threats so that sustainable and resilient economies and societies can be built.

(vii) Strategic Use of ODA and Other International Cooperation

Guided by the vision of a FOIP, Japan will strategically utilize ODA to maintain and develop a free and open international order and to realize coexistence and coprosperity in the international community. Specifically, Japan will provide assistance to strengthen connectivity through quality infrastructure and human resource development, maritime security, the rule of law, and economic security, thereby strengthening relationships of trust and cooperation with developing countries and others. Japan will also engage with partners in the international community at large that support the vision of a FOIP.

Also, under the concept of "human security," Japan will lead international efforts to solve global issues such as poverty reduction, health, climate change, environment, and humanitarian assistance. In so doing, Japan will strengthen its support for overseas operation of Japanese companies, and enhance collaboration between ODA, and other non-ODA public funds. Japan will also continue to strengthen coordination with various stakeholders including international organizations and NGOs.

For the purpose of deepening security cooperation with like-minded countries, apart from ODA for the economic and social development of developing countries and other purposes, a new cooperation framework for the benefit of armed forces and other related organizations will be established. Japan will provide equipment and supplies as well as assistance for the development of infrastructures to like-minded countries in view of strengthening their security capacities and improving their deterrence capabilities. This is part of the efforts to reinforce the comprehensive defense architecture.

(viii) Promotion of People-to-People Exchanges

The promotion of mutual understanding among people and countries is the foundation for mitigating inter-state tensions and creating peaceful and stable international relations. With a view to promoting understanding of Japan abroad and fostering an international environment in which Japan and its people are favorably regarded, Japan will engage in people-to-people and cultural exchanges. Specifically, Japan will promote exchanges at various levels and in various fields, including exchanges with government officials, intellectuals, and cultural figures from countries and regions around the world, student exchanges, youth exchanges, sports exchanges, and others. In addition, Japan will support those programs intended to introduce the rich culture of Japan and to spread the Japanese language overseas.

(2) Strengthening Japan's Defense Architecture

(i) Fundamentally Reinforcing Defense Capabilities as the Last Guarantee of National Security

Across the globe, unilateral attempts to change the status quo by force are constantly taking place, and military buildups in the vicinity of Japan are rapidly expanding. The possibilities are not precluded that serious situations shaking the foundation of the international order, such as Russia's aggression against Ukraine, may occur especially in East Asia in the future. In order to respond to this security environment, Japan will fundamentally reinforce its defense capabilities.

It is difficult to accurately predict when an entity with powerful military capabilities will come to have an intention to directly threaten other countries. Therefore, Japan must pay attention to the capabilities of such actors and develop defense capabilities to take all possible measures to ensure the security of Japan in peacetime. Moreover, Japan's defense capabilities must be able to respond to new ways of warfare as a result of advances in science and technology.

From this perspective, Japan will respond to situations in a multi-layered way by cross domain operational capabilities that enhance the Japan Self-Defense Forces (SDF) capabilities overall, through the synergy of organically integrated capabilities in space, cyberspace, and electromagnetic domains as well as in ground, maritime and air, and by stand-off defense capabilities and other capabilities that will enable us to respond to invading forces from outside the sphere of threats. In addition to manned assets, by reinforcing unmanned defense and other capabilities, Japan will establish defense capabilities where various capabilities are integrated. Furthermore, in order to maximize effective use of the current defense equipment, Japan will further enhance the effectiveness of defense capabilities by improving mobility, securing ammunition and fuel, and hardening major defense facilities as a top priority.

A key to deterring invasion against Japan is counterstrike capabilities that leverage stand-off defense capability and other capabilities. In recent years, in Japan's surroundings, there have been dramatic advances in missile-related technologies, including hypersonic weapons, and practical skills for missile operations, such as saturation attack. Missile forces in the region have significantly improved in both qualitative and quantitative terms, and missiles themselves have been repeatedly launched. Missile attacks against Japan have become a palpable threat. Under these circumstances, Japan will continue its steadfast efforts to both qualitatively and quantitatively enhance its missile defense capabilities by continuing to develop technologies that bring the ability to deal with missiles with irregular trajectories.

Looking ahead, however, if Japan continues to rely solely upon ballistic missile defenses, it will become increasingly difficult to fully address missile threats with the existing missile defense network alone.

For this reason, we need counterstrike capabilities: capabilities which, in the case of missile attacks by an opponent, enable Japan to mount effective counterstrikes against the opponent to prevent further attacks while defending against incoming missiles by means of the missile defense network.

Counterstrike capabilities are SDF's capabilities that leverage stand-off defense capability and other capabilities. In cases where armed attack against Japan has occurred, and as part of that attack ballistic missiles and other means have been used, counterstrike capabilities enable Japan to mount effective counterstrikes against the opponent's territory. Counterstrikes are done as a minimum necessary measure for self- defense and in accordance with the Three New Conditions for Use of Force.

By possessing such capabilities to mount effective counterstrikes, Japan will deter armed attack itself. If an opponent ever launches missiles, it will be able to prevent the opponent's further armed attacks by counterstrike capabilities, while protecting itself against incoming missiles by the missile defense network, thereby defending the lives and peaceful livelihoods of Japanese nationals.

Counterstrike capabilities are the capabilities on which the Government expressed its view on February 29, 1956, which stated that, under the Constitution, "as long as it is deemed that there are no other means to defend against attack by guided missiles and others, to hit the bases of those guided missiles and others is legally within the purview of self-defense and thus permissible." These are also capabilities that the Government has chosen not to acquire up to now as a matter of policy decision.

This Government view squarely applies to measures for self-defense taken under the Three New Conditions for Use of Force, presented in the 2015 Legislation for Peace and Security, and the capabilities that Japan has now decided to acquire can be used when the above-mentioned Three Conditions are met in compliance with this view.

Counterstrike capabilities fall within the purview of Japan's Constitution and international law; they do not change Japan's exclusively defense-oriented policy; and, they will be used only when the above-mentioned Three New Conditions are fulfilled. Needless to say, preemptive strikes, namely striking first at a stage when no armed attack has occurred, remain impermissible.

While the basic division of roles between Japan and the United States will remain unchanged, as Japan will now possess counterstrike capabilities, the two nations will cooperate in counterstrikes just as they do in defending against ballistic missiles and others.

Furthermore, Japan will consistently strengthen coordination and cooperation between the SDF and the Japan Coast Guard (JCG), including control over the Japan Coast Guard (JCG) by the Minister of Defense in the event of a contingency.

Flexible Deterrent Options (FDO) utilizing SDF assets in the form of cross- governmental coordination will also be implemented.

In light of Japan's current security environment, Japan will need to promptly realize the fundamental reinforcement of its defense capabilities. Specifically, by FY 2027, five years after the formulation of the Strategy, Japan will strengthen its defense capabilities to the point at which Japan is able to take the primary responsibility for dealing with invasions against its nation, and disrupt and defeat such threats while gaining the support of its ally and others. Furthermore, by approximately ten years from now, Japan will reinforce its defense capabilities to the point at which it will be possible to disrupt and defeat invasions against its nation much earlier and at a further distance. In addition, as a top priority in five years from now, Japan will maximize effective use of its current equipment, while strengthening its core capabilities for the future of the SDF.

The above measures related to the development of the SDF architecture and defense policies will entail unprecedented undertakings in terms of size and content. The fundamental reinforcement of defense capabilities will not be achieved by a temporary increase in spending, but rather, the Government will be required to maintain a certain level of expenditure. Hence, these policies will be delivered in accordance with the National Defense Strategy and the Defense Program based on this National Security Strategy. Japan will also need to take appropriate measures for securing stable fiscal resources.

In FY 2027, as per its own judgement, Japan will take the necessary measures to make the level of its budget, for both the fundamental reinforcement of defense capabilities and complementary initiatives, reach 2% of the current GDP, through building on the contents of necessary defense capabilities, and by taking into account indexes of international comparison, with a view to coordination with its ally, like- minded countries and others.

(ii) Coordinating with Reinforced Comprehensive Defense Architecture.

The core effort in addressing Japan's defense challenges will be to fundamentally reinforce its defense capabilities. However, because of wide-ranging security targets and fields, Japan will utilize not only its defense capabilities but also its comprehensive national power, including diplomatic and economic capabilities, to defend itself. With this in mind, Japan will reinforce its comprehensive defense architecture by promoting efforts in four areas that complement and are inseparable from the fundamental reinforcement of defense capabilities under the frameworks of relevant ministries and agencies, namely research and development, public infrastructure development, cyber security, and international cooperation, to enhance deterrence capabilities of Japan and like-minded countries.

In addition to this, Japan will promote cooperation with organizations inside and outside the Government, including local public authorities, to develop its defense architecture as a whole.

(iii) Reinforcing Defense Production and Technology Base as Defense Capabilities Themselves

Japan's defense production and technology base is an indispensable foundation for ensuring stable research and development, production, and procurement of defense equipment in Japan. Therefore, Japan will advance defense production and technology bases because they are characterized as defense capabilities themselves. Specifically, in order to build a strong and sustainable defense industry, Japan will promote various initiatives, including making business projects more attractive and actively leveraging the outcomes of advanced technological research in the public and private sectors for research and development of defense equipment. Japan will also reinforce the system for research and development of new defense equipment and take other measures.

(iv) Promoting Transfer of Defense Equipment and Technology

Transfer of defense equipment and technology overseas is a key policy instrument to ensure peace and stability, especially in the Indo-Pacific region, to deter unilateral changes to the status quo by force, to create a desirable security environment for Japan, and to provide assistance to countries that are subject to aggression in violation of international law, use of force, or threat of force. From this perspective, the Three Principles on Transfer of Defense Equipment and Technology, its Implementation Guidelines, and other systems are to be considered for revisions in order to promote smooth transfer of defense equipment and technology of high security significance and international joint development in a broad array of fields. In doing so, the necessity, requirements, and transparency of the related procedures for transfer of defense equipment and technology will be under adequate consideration, while maintaining the three principles themselves.

In addition, Japan will carry forward with the transfer of defense equipment and technology in the joint public and private efforts by implementing measures including providing various forms of assistance to smoothly promote such transfers.

(v) Strengthening the Foundation for SDF Personnel to Fulfill Abilities as Core of Defense Capabilities

Japan will solidify the human resource base for the SDF personnel, the core of its defense capabilities, in order for the personnel to further fulfill their abilities. To this end, Japan will work to secure diverse and talented SDF personnel from diverse backgrounds. On top of this, Japan will set in place an organizational environment of zero tolerance for harassment, and foster an environment so that female members can play more active roles. Japan will also improve treatment of SDF personnel, and drive efforts to foster an environment in which all SDF personnel can maintain high morale and fully fulfill their abilities.

(3) Deepening Security Cooperation with the United States

Japan will fundamentally reinforce its defense capabilities and deepen security cooperation with the United States. By undertaking such efforts, Japan will further strengthen the deterrence and response capabilities of the Japan-U.S. Alliance, including extended deterrence by the U.S. that is backed by its full range of capabilities, including nuclear. Particularly, based on constant examinations of the roles, missions, and capabilities of Japan and the U.S., for the purpose of strengthening the Alliance's deterrence and response capabilities, Japan will undertake efforts to coordinate bilateral operations including cross-domain operations and the use of Japan's counterstrike capabilities, improve interoperability, deepen cooperation in the cyber, space and other fields, advance equipment and technological cooperation that capitalizes on advanced technologies, carry out more advanced and practical bilateral exercises, conduct joint Flexible Deterrent Options (FDO), conduct joint intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) operations, and increase joint/shared use of Japanese and U.S. facilities, while further developing coordination functions of such framework as the Alliance Coordination Mechanism (ACM). In doing so, Japan will strengthen the foundations of information security and cybersecurity so that Japan and the U.S. can fully employ their capabilities.

At the same time, while undertaking these efforts, Japan will steadily implement the realignment of U.S. Forces in Japan, including the relocation of the Marine Corps Air Station Futenma, from the viewpoint of mitigating impacts on local communities including Okinawa.

(4) Strengthening Efforts to Seamlessly Protect Japan in All Directions

In the current security environment, the boundaries between military and non- military, peacetime and contingency, have become blurred. Hybrid warfare is taking place, and gray zone situations are constantly arising. Japan will seamlessly protect its national interests by promoting cross-governmental policies in diverse fields, including cyber, maritime and space domains, technology, intelligence, and ensuring the safety of its people at home and abroad.

(i) Improving Response Capabilities in the Field of Cybersecurity

In order to ensure secure and stable use of cyberspace, especially the security of the nation and critical infrastructures, the response capabilities in the field of cybersecurity should be strengthened equal to or surpassing the level of leading Western countries.

Specifically, in order to be able to respond to emerging cyber threats at any time, Japan will first establish a mechanism to continuously assess the information systems of government agencies, to improve measures against cyber threats as necessary, and to constantly manage vulnerabilities of government agencies' information systems. As part of these efforts, the Government will continue to enhance defense throughout the lifecycle of information systems of government agencies, including those used in the fields of diplomacy, defense, and intelligence, from installation to disposal, while also promoting the development and effective use of human resources inside and outside the Government, by actively adopting cutting-edge concepts and technologies related to cybersecurity at all times.

In addition, Japan will introduce active cyber defense for eliminating in advance the possibility of serious cyberattacks that may cause national security concerns to the Government and critical infrastructures and for preventing the spread of damage in case of such attacks, even if they do not amount to an armed attack. For this purpose, the Government will take further steps to develop information gathering and analysis capabilities in the field of cybersecurity and establish systems to implement active cyber defense. Therefore, the Government will advance efforts to consider to realize necessary measures including the following (a) to (c):

(a) Japan will advance efforts on information sharing to the Government in case of cyberattacks among the private sector including critical infrastructures, as well as coordinating and supporting incident response activities for the private sector.

(b) Japan will take necessary actions to detect servers and others suspected of being abused by attackers by utilizing information on communications services provided by domestic telecommunications providers.

(c) For serious cyberattacks that pose security concerns against the Government, critical infrastructures, and others, the Government will be given the necessary authorities that allow it to penetrate and neutralize attacker's servers and others in advance to the extent possible.

In order to realize and promote these efforts, including active cyber defense, the National center for Incident readiness and Strategy for Cybersecurity (NISC) will be constructively restructured to establish a new organization which will comprehensively coordinate policies in the field of cybersecurity, in a centralized manner. Then, the Government will work on legislation and strengthen operations for the purpose of materializing these new efforts in the field of cybersecurity. These measures will contribute to the reinforcement of a comprehensive defense architecture.

In addition, the Government will improve coordination with other policies that contribute to the enhancement of cybersecurity, such as economic security and the enhancement of technical capabilities related to national security.

Furthermore, the Government will continue to work for the enhancement of information gathering and analysis, attribution and its public announcement, as well as formulation of international frameworks and rules in a coordinated manner with its ally, like-minded countries and others.

(ii) Promoting Maritime Security and Strengthen Maritime Law Enforcement Capabilities

As a maritime nation surrounded by the sea on all sides and blessed with one of the world's most extensive jurisdictional waters, Japan will work with its ally, like-minded countries, and others to promote efforts to ensure the freedoms of navigation and overflight and to ensure safety, as well as maintain and develop the international maritime order based on universal values, including the rule of law. Specifically, Japan will advance multilateral maritime security cooperation by enhancing maritime surveillance to respond to threats in sea lanes, active bilateral drills and exercises with other countries, and overseas port calls. In addition, anti-piracy and intelligence gathering activities will be conducted to ensure the safety of maritime traffic.

While undertaking international cooperation in these areas, Japan will ensure freedoms of navigation and overflight in the South China Sea and other waters, promote peaceful settlement of disputes based on international law, strengthen relations with those coastal states along the sea lanes, and actively utilize the Arctic sea routes. Furthermore, Japan will continue to actively utilize the SDF facility in Djibouti in order to secure stable use of the sea lane.

The role played by the JCG, Japan's maritime law enforcement agency, is essential to its national security. In order to ensure the security of Japan's territory, including the areas surrounding the Senkaku Islands, and to respond effectively in the event of multiple major incidents, Japan's maritime law enforcement capabilities will be significantly reinforced, in conjunction with efforts to strengthen its organization. Specifically, in accordance with the new policy on strengthening maritime law enforcement capabilities, the JCG will promptly increase assets and introduce new technologies, secure sufficient operational expenses, renew degraded vessels, and secure and train personnel.

In addition, the coordination and cooperation between the JCG and the SDF will be consistently strengthened, including the Minister of Defense's control over the JCG in the event of an emergency.

Furthermore, international coordination and cooperation with maritime law enforcement agencies in the United States, Southeast Asian countries, and other countries will be carried forward.

(iii) Reinforcing Comprehensive Efforts for Space Security

To ensure safe and stable utilization of space, which is indispensable for economic and social activities, Japan will strengthen its response capabilities in the field of space security. Specifically, while promoting the use of the space domain by the SDF, JCG and others, Japan will drive forward measures to capitalize on Japan's overall space- related capabilities in the field of security, such as strengthening cooperation between the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the SDF.

In addition, Japan will set up a framework for the Government's decision-making in unforeseeable circumstances, strengthen mechanisms for understanding the space domain, promote measures to address the issue of space debris, expand the development of capabilities to hinder command and control as well as information and communications at the other end, and Japan will enhance cooperation with its ally, like- minded countries, and others, including on the formulation of international codes of conduct.

Furthermore, Japan will utilize its civilian space technology in its national defense by supporting and fostering Japan's space industry, including the construction of satellite constellations, thereby realizing a virtuous cycle to further encourage the development of its space industry

In order to put the agenda and policies in the field of space security into practice, Japan will put together the Government's concept and reflect it in the Basic Plan on Space Policy and other relevant documents.

(iv) Enhancing Public-private Partnerships for Improving Technical Capabilities and Proactively Capitalizing on Outcomes of Research and Development in the Security Field

Cutting-edge science and technology are advancing at an accelerated pace, and it has become extremely difficult in practice to distinguish between technologies for civilian use and for security purposes. Against this backdrop, in order to widely and actively utilize Japan's advanced technological capabilities in the public and private sectors for security purposes, Japan will strengthen the system to improve technological capabilities of the public and private sectors that can be used for security purposes, to utilize, in a whole-of-government manner, funds and information related to research and development. Specifically, for the purpose of promoting research and development of science and technology that contributes to the enhancement of the comprehensive defense architecture, a whole-of-government mechanism will be established to match research and development needs based on the views of the Ministry of Defense with the appropriate technological seeds possessed by relevant ministries and agencies, in addition to implementing these projects. On top of that, Japan will promote active utilization of funds and outcomes related to government-wide R&D, including the Key and Advanced Technology R&D through Cross Community Collaboration Program, for the security sector.

Japan will also work to further strengthen assistance for gathering information, development, and training in the area of cutting-edge and critical technologies and to put in place arrangements.

In order to promote private-sector innovation and to actively utilize the results of such innovation in the security field, Japan will promote the participation of a wide range of leading-edge researchers including those in the academia, while obtaining understanding and cooperation of all parties concerned. Japan will also work across the Government to foster an environment in which the defense industry can fully harness the opportunities offered by other private sector innovations.

(v) Strengthening Intelligence Capacities for Japan's National Security

Japan will reinforce its arrangements and capabilities in the field of intelligence, which is closely related to the maintenance of a sound democracy, smooth decision- making by the Government, and effective external communications. Specifically, in order to strengthen Japan's ability to analyze global trends from a broad, accurate, and multifaceted perspective across diplomatic, military, and economic spheres, Japan will significantly enhance its information-gathering capabilities from various information sources, including human intelligence, open source intelligence, signals intelligence, and imagery intelligence. In particular, with regard to human intelligence, the structure for collecting information will be enhanced and strengthened.

As for imagery intelligence, the functions of information gathering satellites will be expanded and enhanced, and collected information will be utilized more effectively by strengthening the cooperation and coordination between the Cabinet Satellite Intelligence Center and the Ministry of Defense as well as the SDF.

In addition, a mechanism will be established to aggregate information in an integrated manner, and the coordination between the policy and intelligence departments will be enhanced. At intelligence departments, intelligence analysis capabilities will be strengthened to provide high-value-added analysis results to policy making departments through comprehensive analysis (all-source analysis) utilizing all of the intelligence means possessed by the Government, including the use of new technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI).

Also, while taking into account the discussions on the establishment of a new security clearance system in the economic security field, the arrangement for information security will be further solidified.

In addition, from the perspective of bolstering the ability to respond to information warfare in the cognitive domain, including spread of disinformation, a new structure will be established within the Government to aggregate and analyze information on disinformation and others originated abroad, to strengthen external communications, and to enhance cooperation with non-governmental agencies. Furthermore, strategic communication will be actively implemented in a coordinated manner within the Government.

Japan will also promptly consider effective measures by both public and private sectors to prevent the misuse of geospatial information in the security area.

(vi) Reinforcing Response Capabilities within Japan with Contingencies in Mind

In preparation for a direct threat to Japan, Japan will enhance response capabilities in wide ranging areas at home. Specifically, as part of the reinforcement of the comprehensive defense architecture, Japan will establish a cross-governmental mechanism to develop and enhance the functions of public infrastructures such as airports and seaports based on the needs of the SDF and the JCG for their smooth utilization and deployment in response to protection of its nationals, peacetime training, and deployment during contingencies. At the same time, rules will be established for ordinary utilization of airports and seaports with a view to responding to contingencies. These efforts will be promoted in cooperation with local municipalities and residents.

To ensure the smooth activities of the SDF and U.S. forces, and others, measures will be taken to develop arrangements for transportation and storage of SDF ammunition and fuel, coordinate with related parties and organizations regarding use of civilian facilities by the SDF and U.S. forces, ensure secure and flexible use of radio waves, and ensure that SDF facilities and activities be not negatively impacted by civilian facilities.

Regarding measures to secure critical infrastructures, which are closely linked to sustaining the daily livelihoods, such as nuclear power plants, and measures against illegal landing on remote border islands, Japan will make efforts to seamlessly respond to crises in various forms and stages that do not amount to armed attacks, in addition to armed attack situations. For that purpose, the SDF, Police, the JCG, and others will establish a coordination framework and strengthen their response capabilities by enhancing the equipment, systems, and training, in order to seamlessly respond to crises in various forms and stages that do not amount to armed attacks, in addition to armed attack situations.

(vii) Reinforcing Mechanisms for the Protection of Japanese Nationals

Japan will reinforce a mechanism for the protection of Japanese nationals through, for instance, efforts to protect residents, in cooperation of the Government, local municipalities, and designated public institutions. Specifically, for the purpose of achieving prompt evacuation of residents, including those in the Southwest region well in advance of an armed attack, Japan will take measures such as formulating a plan for smooth evacuation as soon as possible, securing the means of transportation of the public and private sectors, developing and coordinating the use of airports, seaports, and other public infrastructures, securing various types of evacuation facilities, and working with international organizations.

In order to enhance the efficacy of these efforts, Japan will also consider the necessary policies, including structural arrangements through promoting coordination among the Government, local municipalities, and designated public institutions, after conducting and assessing drills for the evacuation of residents.

Furthermore, while consistently tackling the enhancement of the information transmission function of J-ALERT, the Government will work to share information and raise public awareness on evacuation activities in preparation for emergencies concerning ballistic missiles.

(viii) Reinforcing Architecture and Measures for the Protection of Japanese Nationals and Others Overseas

Japan will reinforce arrangements and measures to protect Japanese nationals and others overseas from threats such as conflicts, natural disasters, infectious diseases and terrorism. Specifically, efforts will be made to take measures, including for raising awareness of Japanese nationals overseas on safety measures from peace time, providing safety information in a timely manner, ensuring means of evacuation, and strengthening cooperation with related countries.

In this context, consular services at Japanese embassies and consulates, which serve as the most critical hub for protection of Japanese nationals overseas, will be strengthened in terms of structure and capabilities. At the same time, the SDF and other assets will be promptly mobilized for evacuating Japanese nationals and others overseas, when necessary and feasible. To this end, cooperation among relevant ministries and agencies will be enhanced.

Furthermore, while gaining understanding from the Government of Djibouti, the SDF facility there, which has been in operation for counter-piracy activities, will be also utilized for the protection of Japanese nationals and others overseas.

(viiii) Securing Resources Essential for Japan's National Security including Energy and Food

From the perspective of ensuring smooth economic and social activities in Japan and abroad, as well as the ability to sustainably respond in the event of an emergency, the Government will promote policies to secure resources essential for Japan's national security, such as energy security and food security, which form the basis of its people's lives and social and economic activities.

To ensure energy security, in addition to advancing ties with resource-rich countries, diversifying supply sources, and enhancing procurement risk assessment and other methods, Japan will maximize the use of energy sources that contribute to its energy self-sufficiency, such as renewable energy and nuclear power, and will strategically develop and solidify energy sources for this purpose. In cooperation with its ally, like- minded countries, and international organizations, Japan will drive forward measures to improve Japan's energy self-sufficiency ratio and build a robust energy supply system that can withstand contingencies.

With regard to food security, the situation surrounding the supply and demand of food and trade worldwide is unstable and uncertain. As Japan depends largely on imports of food and production materials from overseas, the risks associated with Japan's food security are manifesting themselves. Therefore, transforming the structure of its food supply is key. Specifically, Japan will produce at home what can be produced here in Japan to the extent possible and work to secure domestic production of items and materials that highly dependent on foreign countries, in conjunction with ensuring stable imports and appropriate supplying of national stockpiles. In pursuit of this, Japan will expand the production of grains, ramp up the production of feed, amplify the use of domestic resources such as compost, and then appropriately carry out measures to ensure stable imports and the national stockpiles of items that are difficult to procure at home, so that Japan can ensure stable food supply to our people and bolster Japan's food security.

With a view to responding to global food security crises, Japan will improve the international environment for food supply, improve food production, and provide support to vulnerable countries, in cooperation with its ally, like-minded countries, and international organizations.

(5) Promoting Economic Security Policies to Achieve Autonomous Economic Prosperity

Economic security is to ensure Japan's national interests, such as peace, security, and economic prosperity, by carrying out economic measures. In the face of various threats at hand through economic means, Japan will coordinate ideas on necessary economic measures and execute these measures comprehensively, effectively and intensively to enhance Japan's self-reliance and to secure the advantage and indispensability concerning our technologies and others.

Specifically, Japan will reinforce its mechanisms for promoting economic security policies, and work with its ally and like-minded countries, as well as in cooperation with the private sector, to take measures including those indicated below. Japan will consistently consider and revisit these measures, and in particular, continuously assess the risks that exist in each industry, and implement other necessary security measures in a whole-of-government manner.

(i) Japan will steadily implement and constantly review the Economic Security Promotion Act (Law No. 43, 2022.hereinafter referred to as the "Promotion Act"), and further reinforce efforts in this regard.

(ii) With regard to supply chain resilience, Japan will curb excessive dependence on specific countries, carry forward next-generation semiconductor development and manufacturing bases, secure stable supply for critical goods including rare earth, and promote capital reinforcement of private enterprises with critical goods and technologies, and strengthen the function of policy-based finance, in pursuit of protecting and nurturing critical goods.

(iii) Japan will consider reviewing government procurement procedures, including those by local municipalities, as well as expanding the scope of the prior screening system under the Promotion Act, with regard to the critical infrastructure field.

(iv) With regard to data and information protection, Japan will carry out additional measures to ensure more appropriate management of sensitive data and safety and reliability of information and communication technology services. In addition, keeping in mind information security practices of leading countries and needs of the industries, examinations will be made to bolster Japan's information security, including security clearance.

(v) For the purpose of fostering and preserving technology and other purposes, Japan will proceed with specific considerations in further stepping up support and developing systems for information gathering, development, and fostering of advanced critical technologies, taking on additional measures to enhance investment screening and export control as well as response to forced technology transfer, and further advancing research integrity and measures against talent drain.

(vi) Japan will promote effective efforts against economic coercion by foreign countries.

(6) Maintaining and Strengthening International Economic Order based on Free, Fair, and Equitable Rules

Japan will maintain and strengthen an open and stable international economic order by preventing non-military pressure by certain states aimed at impeding independent national foreign policy decision-making and sound economic development. Specifically, while maintaining and strengthening the multilateral trading system with the World Trade Organization (WTO) at its core, Japan will enhance its own measures to counter against unfair trade practices and economic coercion, including through working to solidify international norms in cooperation with its ally and like-minded countries.

In addition, in order to achieve the development of economic order and sustainable and inclusive economic growth in the Indo-Pacific region and extend the free and fair economic order, we will maintain the high standards of the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement on Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), ensure the full implementation of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) agreement, and materialize other economic partnership agreement negotiations and the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework (IPEF).

Furthermore, Japan will pursue implementing mutually beneficial economic cooperation as well as maintaining and strengthening international frameworks and rules. To be specific, in order to avoid situations where recipient countries fall into "debt traps" due to opaque forms of assistance to developing countries by some states and others, Japan will spearhead global efforts to ensure that states and institutions comply with international rules and standards and carry out development finance in a transparent and fair manner.

In addition, Japan will provide capacity-building support for developing countries to enhance their self-reliance and present attractive options for the economic development of developing countries, including support in coordination with its ally and like-minded countries and development finance institutions.

(7) Global Efforts for Coexistence and Coprosperity in the International Community

Japan's national security can only be fulfilled through the peace and stability of the international community. In order to achieve coexistence and coprosperity with the international community, Japan will cooperate with the international community in ways commensurate with its international standing, economic capabilities, and technological capabilities.

(i) Promote Multilateral Cooperation and Strengthen Ties with International Organizations and Frameworks

Japan has built relationships of trust with many countries, regardless of differences in political and economic systems, through various forms of cooperation. On this basis, through multilateral diplomacy, Japan will strive to realize the goals it attaches importance to and cooperate with the international community for coexistence and coprosperity by engaging in tailored communications with these countries and strengthening cooperation with the United Nations and other international organizations.

In particular, the UN plays a role in a wide range of fields, including conflict management, humanitarian assistance, peacebuilding, protection and promotion of human rights, climate change, food crisis, natural disasters, and refugee issues, and Japan will strengthen cooperation with the UN and countries surrounding the UN to further promote multilateral cooperation. At the same time, given that the UN Security Council does not function adequately when a permanent member is a party to a dispute, and that other inherent limitations of the UN are becoming apparent, we will lead efforts to strengthen the functions of the UN, including reform of the UN Security Council.

In addition, Japan will advance efforts to enable Japanese nationals to play an even more active role as staff in the UN and other international organizations.

(ii) Efforts to Address Global Challenges

The Sustainable Development Goals ("SDGs"), adopted by the UN in September 2015 are goals for the international community as a whole to address global challenges in an integrated manner, including peace, the rule of law, and human rights, with no one being left behind. Rather than addressing each goal individually, Japan will contribute to the achievement of the SDGs by taking on and preventing complex interrelated risks based on the concept of human security.

In addition, with regard to global issues such as climate change, infectious diseases, energy, food problems, and the environment, which have a direct or indirect impact on Japan's national security, Japan will expand the circle of cooperation not only to include its ally and like-minded countries, but also many other countries and organizations, and then enhance international efforts.

Fully recognizing that global health, including measures against infectious diseases, is an important issue for the international community, encompassing not only economic and social risks but also major national security risks, Japan will cooperate with its ally and like-minded countries as well as international organizations and other relevant partners to take all possible measures to prevent, prepare for, and respond to future infectious disease crises on a regular basis, based on its experience in responding to COVID-19. In doing so, Japan, in cooperation with its ally and like-minded countries as well as with international organizations and other relevant partners, will steadfastly deliver medical care at home, and secure infectious disease control supplies including medicines from the early stages of infection crises, and undertake efforts to advance the ability to respond to infectious diseases based on scientific knowledge. The Government will also work to reinforce its own function of serving as the control tower in response to infectious disease crises. Furthermore, Japan will strive to advance health systems and relevant international frameworks that contribute to the enhancement of response capabilities of infectious diseases in developing countries.

In addition, the Government will actively promote global efforts in realizing more resilient, equitable and sustainable universal health coverage (UHC).

Additionally, in order to appropriately respond to the rapidly growing needs for humanitarian assistance around the world in recent years, Japan will step up efforts necessary to provide humanitarian assistance promptly and on a sufficient scale. Furthermore, Japan will actively accept displaced people due to war or natural disasters in foreign countries.

The protection of human rights is the fundamental responsibility of each and every country. Japan will raise its voice against serious human rights violations and continue to build on dialogue and cooperation with various countries for the sake of the protection and promotion of human rights.

Given the vulnerable position of women in conflict, Japan will spearhead international efforts to promote the protection and redress of women's human rights. Japan will also undertake efforts around the globe to achieve gender equality and promote women's empowerment in all areas.

The international peace cooperation, including peacekeeping operations (PKO) that Japan has long contributed in order to promote peace and stability in the international community, fosters cooperation with other Troop Contributing Countries (TCCs), and helps to develop Japan's human resources. Therefore, Japan will continue to actively engage in various forms of cooperation including dispatch of personnel and strategic use of capacity building assistance.

VII Domestic Base that should be Strengthened to Support Japan's National Security

1. Strengthening the Economic and Fiscal Bases

Japan will achieve a virtuous cycle of security and economic growth, in which economic growth promotes further improvements in Japan's national security while ensuring a security environment in which its economy can grow.

Japan will also ensure sustainable response capabilities in the event of contingencies across a broad array of sectors. To this end, Japan will promote cooperation between the public and private sectors to secure energy, food, and other resources, develop infrastructure, and build stable supply chains for parts and other items essential for security.

Furthermore, as Japan's economy is highly dependent on foreign countries, Japan has critical importance in maintaining the confidence of international markets and having adequate fiscal capacity to secure the necessary funds to meet a substantial increase in fiscal demand associated with securing resources and defense equipment in the event of contingency. Thus, Japan will work consistently to reinforce the economic, monetary, and fiscal bases which serve as the foundation of Japan's national security. This is a premise for Japan's continuous and stable national security policy including fundamental reinforcement of defense capabilities.

2. Reinforcing the Social Base

Japan will consistently engage in efforts to deepen the understanding of and cooperation on national security among the people of Japan and organizations, inside and outside the Government, including local municipalities and corporate enterprises. Japan will also pay respect to other countries and their citizens, and foster love for its own country and homeland. In addition, Japan will further promote efforts to ensure that activities of the members of SDF and JCG, police officers, and others who dedicate themselves to hazardous duties for the peace and security of Japan be appropriately appreciated across its society. Furthermore, measures will be taken to ensure understanding and cooperation of residents living near security-related facilities, which form the basis for the activities of these personnel.

In addition, Japan will redouble efforts to put forward information at home and abroad on matters that concern both the public and private sectors, such as issues related to its territory and sovereignty, protection of its nationals, and cyberattacks, and to broaden understanding of the current activities of the SDF and U.S. Forces in Japan.

Furthermore, Japan will improve public and private sector mechanisms and response capabilities in preparation for the next infectious disease crisis, and promote measures for disaster prevention and mitigation in advance.

3. Enhancing the Intellectual Base

The importance of information and technology in the field of national security is on the rise, and ensuring an intellectual base that generates such information and technology is essential to improving security. From this perspective, Japan will promote measures to foster practical cooperation among the Government, business community and academia in the security field, to drive forward information sharing between the public and private sectors for encouraging measured and accurate responses to national security issues, such as the spread of disinformation and cyberattacks, and to step up cooperation between the public and private sectors to facilitate effective communication of Japan's security policy at home and abroad.

VIII Duration, Evaluation, and Revision of the Strategy

The National Security Strategy will fulfill its complete purpose only when its contents are to be executed. Measures based on the Strategy will be strategically and sustainably implemented in a timely and appropriate manner under the National Security Council which serves as the control tower for national security. Furthermore, the National Security Council will regularly and systematically evaluate the security environment and execution of measures based on this document. The Strategy will be executed approximately over the coming decade. Should Japan expect any significant changes including in the security environments, it will make necessary revisions.

IX Conclusion

At this time of an inflection point in history, Japan is finding itself in the midst of the most severe and complex security environment since the end of WWII. In no way can we be optimistic about what the future of the international community will bring.

However, the world which we have built will continue to be able to nurture economic prosperity thanks to vibrant trade and investment, innovation from global interactions of diverse talents, and new and attractive cultures. We should hold on to these hopes.

We are now standing at the crossroads of ushering in either a world of hope or a world of adversity and distrust. This very choice will depend on the actions of the international community in the time ahead, including Japan. Japan will ensure its security on the basis of comprehensive national power in areas where the international community is in confrontation. In areas where the international community should engage in cooperation, by contrast, we will continue to fulfill a leading and constructive role in resolving a broad array of issues. Japan's action in this way worldwide will further enhance its presence and credibility in the international arena and expand the circle of like-minded countries and others, thereby leading to improve the security environment surrounding Japan.

Even standing at this crossroads between a world of hope and a world of adversity and distrust amidst the most severe and complex post-war security environment, Japan, blessed with a stable democracy, the established rule of law, a mature economy, and rich culture, will advocate policies grounded in universal values and then lead the way in undertaking efforts to reinforce the international order with steadfast resolve.