"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] Fact Sheet on U.S.-Japan Cooperation on Reducing Nuclear Risks

[Date] November 13, 2010
[Source] Ministry of Foreign Affaires of Japan
[Full text]

This fact sheet summarizes discussions between the United States Government (USG) and the Government of Japan (GOJ) on the reduction of nuclear risks, and reflects the commitment of the two governments to deepen their cooperation and collaboration in the fields of nuclear security, nuclear disarmament and nuclear nonproliferation. In the context of growing momentum in the international community to deal seriously with nuclear risks, they welcome the adoption by consensus of the Final Document at the Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) held last May, and underscore the need to pursue concrete measures towards the implementation of its conclusions and recommendations.

Nuclear Security

The USG and the GOJ welcome the Communiqué and the Work Plan issued at the 2010 Nuclear Security Summit’s conclusion, and reaffirm the goal of securing all vulnerable nuclear material within four years.

The USG and the GOJ share more than fifty years of partnership in the peaceful uses of nuclear technology. As responsible stewards of this technology, they pledge to expand and accelerate their scientific and technical cooperation with a particular view to advancing and integrating measures to ensure nuclear safety, safeguards and security. They confirm the need to strengthen cooperative activities to implement the highest standards of security for nuclear materials at civilian nuclear facilities and during transportation, and to expand joint activities in the fields of nuclear forensics and nuclear material detection and measurement.

As leaders in the field of civil nuclear energy, the USG and the GOJ will continue to promote the development of expertise on nuclear security and the corresponding investment in human capital, particularly in areas like the Asia-Pacific region where nuclear power utilization can be expected to increase. In this light, the USG welcomes Japan’s efforts to establish an Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security. To further support these efforts, the USG and the GOJ have decided to establish a bilateral Nuclear

Security Working Group to identify areas for cooperation and to assist in the identification and coordination of tangible outcomes for the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. The Working Group will build upon both countries’ commitment to the highest nuclear security standards and practices and demonstrate internationally continued U.S. and Japanese leadership in the nuclear security sphere.

Nuclear Disarmament

The USG and the GOJ recognize that significant efforts are underway to reduce the number and role of nuclear weapons, including through the U.S. Nuclear Posture Review and the New START Treaty, while maintaining a credible deterrent and ensuring the security of the United States and its allies. In this context, the GOJ appreciates the USG decision to strengthen its long-standing negative security assurance, and recognizes that while the United States is not prepared at the present time to adopt a universal policy that deterring nuclear attack on the United States, its allies and partners is the “sole purpose” of nuclear weapons, it will work to establish conditions under which such a policy could be safely adopted.

The USG and GOJ also recognize the need for progress in the realm of multilateral nuclear disarmament, including the entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and the immediate commencement and earliest possible conclusion of negotiations on a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). They are convinced of the urgency of revitalizing the Conference on Disarmament (CD) as endorsed at the High-level Meeting convened by the Secretary General of the United Nations on September 24, 2010. They reaffirm their readiness to seek, in collaboration with other like-minded countries, recourse to alternative arrangements to the CD for multilateral negotiations on an FMCT if the deadlock is not broken next year.

Nuclear Nonproliferation and Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy

The USG and the GOJ emphasize the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in verifying the peaceful use of nuclear energy and extending its benefits to those nations that require IAEA assistance and comply with their nuclear nonproliferation obligations. On the serious challenges of nonproliferation, they reaffirm the urgent need for Iran to comply with the relevant UN Security Council resolutions and to provide the necessary cooperation to the IAEA to determine that Iran’s nuclear programs are for exclusively peaceful purposes. They also emphasize that it is imperative for North Korea to abandon all nuclear weapons and existing nuclear programs in accordance with the 2005 Joint Statement of the Six-Party Talks and UN Security Council resolutions 1718 and 1874. They will also continue to work closely with the IAEA and its Director General to ensure the Agency has the resources, authorities, capabilities, and technical support necessary to discharge its responsibilities. In this regard, they are prepared to join with the IAEA to encourage universalization of the Additional Protocol, and to coordinate efforts to promote the Peaceful Uses Initiative launched by the United States in May.

They also underscore the importance of effective and transparent export controls for ensuring a robust nuclear nonproliferation regime and facilitating the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. As an immediate priority, they urge the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) to reach consensus at the earliest possible time on strengthened controls on enrichment and reprocessing transfers.