"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] STATEMENT by the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Heads of State Council on climate change response

[Place] Samarkand
[Date] September 16, 2022
[Source] Shanghai Cooperation Organization Secretariat
[Full text]

We, the heads of state of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), unanimously recognise that adverse effects of climate change exacerbate every day, thus making it even more relevant to take global action. Responding to climate change and facilitating post-COVID recovery of the world economy are key objectives of this time. The SCO states account for almost half of the world population. In the interests of these peoples and the entire global community, we reaffirm our shared determination to promote cooperation in tackling challenges stemming from climate change.

We recognise that climate change, with its negative effects, is a global issue, challenging the sustainable development of the humanity. Addressing this problem requires efforts by the entire global community, guided by the fundamental principles set forth in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), for the benefit of strengthening international cooperation and for the purpose of responding together to the ongoing transformation of the economy and society towards sustainable and inclusive development.

The member states believe that the Paris Agreement must be fulfilled based on the principle of shared but differentiated responsibility and taking into consideration the corresponding capabilities in light of the varying national contexts. It should be noted that, to achieve the temperature goal of the Paris Agreement, both curbing and absorbing greenhouse gas emissions are of decisive importance, and that countries have the right to independently set their national goals in preventing climate change and determine how these goals will be achieved.

The member states contribute effectively to achieving the global goals dealing with preventing and adapting to climate change. While being faced with the challenges of post-COVID economic recovery and improving living standards, we have set an example for the international community by taking drastic steps to respond to climate change and setting ambitious objectives as part of our nationally determined contributions.

We want to stress that the support provided by developed countries according to Annex II to the UNFCCC must be commensurate with the developing countries' climate change action. The developed countries' have an obligation to the developing countries to provide and mobilise resources to fight climate change (Annex II to the UNFCCC).

We note with great concern that the developed countries (Annex II to the UNFCCC) have yet to fulfil their obligations concerning climate financing, which includes raising $100 billion per year by 2020. We call on them to fulfil their obligations as soon as possible before COP27, to make a substantial contribution to setting a new collective quantitative goal with respect to climate financing for the period beyond 2025 and increase the required support of the developing countries in funding, developing and sharing technology and capacity building , to assist the developing countries in climate change response in the context of sustainable development.

The member states support a balance between reducing emissions and development, advocating a fair transition. We want to emphasise that per capita greenhouse gas emissions in the developing countries are lower than in the developed countries. The developing countries' rights to independent and sustainable development must be ensured. The Paris Agreement states that, in the process of sustainable development and efforts to eradicate poverty, the developing countries require more time to reach peak carbon emissions. Unilateral enforcement violates multilateral principles, seriously undermining multilateral cooperation and collective and national efforts to tackle climate change, as well as weakening the countries' ability to deliver on the climate agenda.

The member states are convinced that it is unacceptable to use the climate agenda to introduce measures that would limit trade and investment cooperation. They are calling for maintaining an inclusive and non-discriminatory regime based on the principles of voluntary climate action.

The member states appreciate the UNFCCC's key role in international talks and cooperation regarding efforts to combat climate change, and they celebrate the 30th anniversary of the signing of this document. Guided by the UNFCCC's fundamental principles, they are ready to work with all parties for the complete and effective implementation of the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement.

The member states note that the Paris Agreement aims to make sure that the increase in average global temperatures stays well below two degrees Celsius compared to pre-industrial levels, and that temperature increases be limited to 1.5 degrees Celsius. They welcome the results of the 26th UN Climate Change Conference (COP26) and support the efforts of Egypt to prepare for and hold the 27th UN Climate Change Conference (COP27).

The member states reaffirm their readiness to undertake joint efforts in the context of the upcoming conference and to work with all parties to the UNFCCC under a mutual initiative, the principles of openness, transparency, inclusivity and consensus and also with due account for varying national contexts, so as to achieve the desired results.

The member states support the initiative of the Republic of Tajikistan to proclaim 2025 International Glacier Protection Year and note the proposal to establish the International Glacier Preservation Fund.

While recognising the role of carbon trading in achieving the goals of the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement, the member states consider it advisable to exchange experience and best practices in order to ensure the economic efficiency of adaptation measures and climate-change prevention measures through inclusive and equitable approaches, as well as the principle of common, but differentiated, responsibility.

While continuing to implement the Convention for Cooperation in Environmental Protection (Qingdao, 2018) and the Green Belt Programme of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (Dushanbe, 2021), the member states intend to implement the following additional measures:

- facilitate sustainable development, efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve and upgrade infrastructure, including energy infrastructure;

- expand cooperation for developing and introducing resource-saving, energy-efficient, green and low-emission technologies;

- explore the possibility of implementing joint measures regarding the influence of climate change on marine life and vegetation;

- expand experience exchanges in the field of investment standards and sustainable projects, including green taxonomies;

- study prospects for more profound cooperation to mobilise funding, so as to prevent climate change and adapt to it;

- launch dialogue on carbon trading between SCO member states, including approaches for involvement in international carbon markets;

- promote capacity building, create systems for training climate specialists, draft programmes for retraining specialists on the basis of mutual cooperation between SCO member states;

- hold intra-SCO seminars, forums, roundtable discussions involving representatives of state agencies, business associations, research centres, scientists and other experts, so as to discuss interaction, as regards experience exchanges in the field of climate change;

- adhere to openness to encourage interested SCO observer states and dialogue partners to work together in the above-mentioned spheres.

16 September 2022, Samarkand