"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] Perspectives on the Post-2015 Development Agenda

[Date] July 10, 2014
[Source] Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
[Full text]

Table of Contents

I.        Introduction...1
II.The Changing Global Development Landscape...2
III.Guiding Principles for Setting the New Develpment Agenda...3
IV.Key Elements to Consider...4
V.Goals and Targets...6
  Cluster1:Poverty Eradication...6
  Cluster2:People-Centered Development...7
  Cluster3:Quality Economic Growth...3
  Cluster4:Environmental Sustainability and Resilience...10
  Cluster5:Peace, Security and Good Governance as Enablers...11
  Cluster 6:Means of Implementation or Global Partnerships...12
VI.Concluding Remarks...13


Inclusive Growth, Resilient Growth, Environmentally Sustainable Growth, Human Security, Human Development

I. Introduction

The year 2015 presents an important landmark for the international community in many ways. In September, political leaders will agree upon new goals and targets for sustainable development for the post-2015 era at the UN Summit. A few months earlier in March, the new Hyogo Framework of Action 2 (HFA2) for the period 2015 to 2025 will be finalized for agreement at the UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai, Japan. Later on in December, the COP21 meeting of the UNFCCC in Paris will mark a pivotal point for cooperation on the environment as the parties present work together to reach a new agreement on a framework for action to combat climate change beyond 2015.

In view of these important events, this paper examines the issues that form the development agenda, and proposes goals and targets to be achieved by the international community through development cooperation in the decades following 2015.

II. The Changing Global Development Landscape

This paper is based on the premise that the new development agenda must take into account the changes that have occurred since the turn of the millennium, both in terms of the nature of the challenges we will face and in the structure of the international community itself.

(a) Global and cross-border challenges

With the acceleration of globalization over the past 15 years, a number of countries have benefited from higher economic growth and achieved the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Yet while globalization has offered many new riches and opportunities, it has also posed new challenges. We now live in a world where some countries or regions are at greater risk to the threat of armed conflicts, climate change, mega disasters or acts of terrorism. We read daily about the spread of communicable diseases, the deterioration of the urban environment, and the degradation of the terrestrial and marine environment, not to mention the problems that derive from the water-energy-food security nexus. These complex issues call for careful consideration and pose policy challenges of an increasingly global and cross-border nature. These challenges cannot be dealt with by any one country alone, however many resources it may have at its disposal, nor can they be adequately addressed by specific groups of actors, such as what we recognize as today's 'developed world'. The complex challenges that we will describe here require the concerted and joint effort of all stakeholders.

(b) The changing structure of the international community

In looking at the international community, the good news is that there are now more resources and actors that can contribute to the solution of development challenges than ever before, and we will likely observe a continued change in the structure and membership of the international community. On the state level, middle-income countries (MICs) have emerged as major economic powers. These countries are already busy establishing new forms of cooperation with poorer countries. Policy makers in low income countries can now access a variety of experience with regard to country ownership; not only can they learn from today's industrialized economies, but also from the new development experience amassed by the most successful emerging economies. Furthermore, we must recognize today's world system is no longer composed only of sovereign states. This century is witness to the increasing influence of non-state actors such as the private sector, NGOs, private foundations, local governments and academics, each with networks reaching beyond national boundaries. We must access and distill the rich expertise and know-how these new stakeholders possess so that they too can contribute toward identifying the most appropriate solutions, and at the same time, contribute new financial resources to a given development challenge.

(c) Mutual learning and accountability of the new development agenda

These changes both in the nature of the challenges we face and in the structure of the world system we live in make it clear that the development agenda should be re-conceived to allow it to shift away from the basic premise that the challenges faced by developing countries are the ones to be addressed, and the solutions to these problems are to be provided primarily by developed countries. Similarly, the view underlying the current MDGs that dichotomizes the world into one composed of developed and developing countries is now obsolete.

Thus any new development agenda agreed upon must be of a universal nature. It needs to address the challenges not only of today's developing countries but also of its developed ones. The agenda should also require the collaboration and mutual accountability of all stakeholders, that is to say, both developed and developing countries as well as as the non-state actors mentioned earlier.

III. Guiding Principles for Setting the New Development Agenda

In this paper we will lay out a vision for the new post-2015 development agenda based on the following guiding principles:

(a) country ownership supported by adequate capacity;

(b) global and inclusive partnerships between states, civil society and the private sector; and

(c) human security as the cornerstone of a people-centered approach.

(a) Country ownership supported by adequate capacity

The principle of country ownership is based on the recognition that, although nation states no longer enjoy the monopoly on power that they used to in the past, they will remain the most significant actors in many spheres of international development. The choice of this guiding principle also implies that, however global challenges will become, the most immediate and serious challenges in development will in all likelihood continue to affect today's developing countries disproportionately, and with that being the case, their development path should be chosen and owned by them.

The new post-2015 development agenda also demands that the principle of country ownership should be broad-based, encompassing not only governments and the public sector, but also civil society and parliaments as representatives of the people. As a variety of actors are expected to be involved in and responsible for achieving the goals of the new development agenda, each of them requires the requisite capabilities for handling issues on multiple levels, from on the individual or organizational level, right through to the policy or institutional one. Where a developing country identifies capacity gaps that need to be filled, the international community should step in to offer capacity development or facilitate trust building between different actors.

(b) Global and inclusive partnerships between states, civil society and the private sector

This second guiding principle reflects JICA's view that as the distinction between developed and developing countries becomes increasingly blurred, and as the experience of developed countries may no longer offer the most appropriate solutions, greater collaboration among countries, irrespective of their income levels, provides the optimal way forward. The time is ripe for all countries to come forward and collaborate as partners in the new world order so that they may jointly find those solutions most appropriate to the circumstances of each country.

State actors must collaborate with various non-state actors to reflect the ever-diversifying world order, as it is evident that no single nation state alone can adequately resolve the huge and complicated issues that face the modern world. Beyond this, non-state actors possess enormous potential as partners as they can offer additional resources and knowledge, which can be used ever more effectively for development purposes by means of information and communication technologies.

(c) Human security as the cornerstone of a people-centered approach

Human security is a concept which like latticework links various humanitarian, economic, and social issues together with the aim of understanding how best to alleviate human suffering and guarantee people's well-being and safety. In action human security focuses primarily on protecting people while promoting peace and ensuring sustainable and continuous development. The human security concept includes the right of people to live in freedom and dignity, free from poverty and despair. All individuals, in particular the vulnerable, are entitled to freedom from fear or freedom from want, with the equal opportunity to enjoy all their rights and fully develop their potential. When put into practice, human security calls for people-centered, comprehensive, context-specific and prevention-oriented responses that strengthen the protection and empowerment of all people and all communities.

The MDGs that were set out at the beginning of the millennium represent an attempt to codify the scope of human security and make it measurable. This undertaking in itself is a laudable achievement. However, the goals and targets set have not managed to take full account of all individuals. There remain those individuals who eke out an existence on the fringes of society, or those who are vulnerable to the risk of conflict, accident or disaster. In view of these lacunae, JICA believes the new development agenda must focus primarily on vulnerable individuals and communities and also on those forced to migrate.

IV. Key Elements to Consider

This paper argues that there are three fundamental elements that should be factored into the post-2015 development agenda. The first key consideration pertains to setting the priority of goals. Clearly, the new agenda should -- first and foremost -- emphasize tackling those goals that remain unachieved under the current MDGs framework. The second major factor relates to sustained economic growth as the driver of poverty reduction. While this principle has already been reconfirmed as imperative under the current framework, we argue that it must be given special and continued attention in the post-2015 agenda. The third element concerns the need to respond to emerging challenges to attain inclusive, resilient, and environmentally sustainable growth, which leads to the realization of human security.

(a) Tackling the unfinished business of the current MDGs framework

As a result of its collective efforts, the international community has achieved a laudable degree of success in meeting the current MDGs, including substantial progress toward the goal of poverty reduction. While we can applaud these results, huge challenges still remain to be tackled. First, with the knowledge that more than a billion people around the world still live in absolute poverty, our central challenge in the decades to come must be to maintain or indeed accelerate poverty reduction efforts in order to offer the chance of a better life to all in need no matter where they live. Second, the new framework should pay particular attention to countries battered by conflict as these nations are the ones at threat of missing all of the MDG targets. Finally, in terms of sector, health and sanitation are areas that deserve special attention. Worldwide, achievement on the targets related to maternal and child health and water and sanitation lag far behind progress made toward other MDGs. This fact points to an urgent need to renew and scale up our efforts to achieve these goals.

(b) Realizing strong economic growth to act as the driver of poverty reduction

If the global community hopes to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable human development, it requires more resources, and to obtain these, steady and stable growth of the economy becomes imperative.

If the world economy fails to achieve strong growth and slows down, or worse still, begins to slide on a downward trajectory, a large number of the middle class will see their economic welfare deteriorate and many of these people may even suffer further by falling back into the ranks of poor. Countries that fail to diversify their economy, create new decent work opportunities, and maintain or even expand their middle-class population, run the risk of becoming stuck in the 'middle income trap' and, in the worst case scenario, may even have to contend with severe political or social unrest. These gloomy outcomes of slow or no growth could just as easily arise in those MICs that have already achieved the current MDG targets. Hence we argue that policies aiming at sustained and robust growth are a universal requirement.

Such policies should emphasize investment both in physical infrastructure and in human resources. The imperative for physical infrastructure for economic development is unquestionable, and the need for enhancing investment in human capacity cannot be overemphasized. Together they constitute fundamental building blocks of human development and furthermore they comprise two indispensable components for achieving sustained and broad-based growth. Thus the new framework must place adequate stress on building and offering education and healthcare services. Seeking ways to promote technical training and skills development also warrants attention within the framework. High-quality tertiary education increases the growth potential of a country as it forms a strong human capital base from which technical and scientific innovations can emerge. The new framework should also address the need for job creation, which can be achieved with the right mix of physical infrastructure and human capital investment as discussed here, and backed by policy and institutional reforms.

(c) Ensuring inclusive, resilient and environmentally sustainable growth

Robust economic growth is a desirable and necessary requirement for sustained development, yet we must also be concerned about the quality of growth. Any growth a country achieves should translate into the development of its economy, society and physical environment, and ultimately result in improving the human security of its populace. Fast growing countries may face widening income disparities that can engender social unrest or may have to deal with political pressures to backtrack on their growth path. We have also witnessed an increasing number of cases where massive loss and damage have been caused by climate change or frequent disasters. Thus, JICA believes that the three concepts of inclusiveness, resilience and environmental sustainability should be incorporated into the new set of development targets and goals for beyond 2015.

While 'equality in results' cannot always be guaranteed in a well-functioning market economy, 'equality in opportunities' should be assured as it is fundamental in ensuring inclusive growth and development. With this being the case, 'equality in opportunities' ought to be added to the post-2015 goals and targets. We want a future where even the most vulnerable members of the society benefit from a reliable social safety net and expanded universal health coverage (UHC); where all the people are cared for by a solid elderly care system when they age; and where all the people are treated fairly, unhampered by any artificial barriers, prejudices, preferences or social discrimination, so that their success or failure is determined solely by their own efforts. In this regard, we need to guarantee that the most vulnerable, all women, disabled persons, and the elderly can fully participate in development process, able to compete on a level playing field, and rewarded on the basis of their own performance alone.

The new development framework must also embody the concept of resilience to downside risks. The current MDGs simply define goals and targets to achieve growth and improve livelihoods. They offer no clear perspective on how to address downside risks, such as the various forms of vulnerability that societies must reckon with or challenges such as economic crises or natural and man-made disasters. The potential setbacks from these risks could undermine the progress that countries have made over the past decades. Evidently, these risks are particularly acute and severe for those on the margins, meaning that when poor and vulnerable individuals or communities are affected by external shocks, recovery and a return to the growth path is slow and difficult.

V. Goals and Targets

Based on the above discussion, in this chapter we propose specific goals and targets that incorporate JICA's views regarding the post-2015 development agenda. The aims and metrics we set out here take into consideration the various international discussions underway, in particular the series of sessions held by the Open Working Group on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs OWG). In full recognition of the fact that development is a complex process, and, that it is difficult to list a set of distinct mutually exclusive goals that cover the whole spectrum of development challenges, we have broadly structured issues of global significance together into groups and propose the following 6 clusters to be included in the new development agenda beyond 2015: (1) poverty eradication; (2) people-centered development; (3) quality economic growth; (4) environmental sustainability and resilience; (5) peace, security and good governance; and (6) means of implementation or global partnerships.

Cluster 1: Poverty Eradication

While it seems that global incidence of extreme poverty has been reduced under Goal 1 of the current MDGs, the situation has not improved for a large number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia and the Middle East. Absolute income poverty still needs to be reduced through strong and sustainable growth, particularly in fragile states and conflict-affected countries. Tackling poverty remains the largest piece of unfinished business within the current MDGs framework. Along with faster growth, we observe widening income disparities within a country or a region, and because of this, there is the risk that a significant proportion of the people may be left behind, entrapped in relative poverty. Thus we need to take account of inequality in our efforts to eradicate poverty.

Access to safe and affordable food, and a balanced diet increases the well-being of people and allows them to divert their efforts from trying just to survive to developing their full potential. Access to safe drinking water reduces the risk of dehydration, diarrhea and other waterborne diseases, improves sanitation and hygiene and has other knock on benefits for society and the economy.

As mentioned toward the end of the previous section, when we refer to equality, we are focusing on measures that ensure equal access to opportunities, not results. These actions include the introduction of national programs for the social protection of children, youth, the unemployed, migrants, persons with disabilities, indigenous people and the elderly.

1) Eradication of extreme poverty

[1] Eradicate absolute income poverty and reduce relative poverty

[2] End hunger and malnutrition

[3] Ensure universal access to safe and affordable drinking water and sanitation services

[4] Implement nationally appropriate social protection programs for all, and enhance empowermentand social inclusion

Cluster 2: People-Centered Development

Strong and rich human capital provides the foundation for robust economic growth and poverty reduction. Ensuring universal access to health services, education and learning opportunities, contributes to building a better stock of competencies that forms human capital. Investment in people reduces the risks that may affect their health, and upgrades human capacity for jobs and income opportunities. Nurturing human capital requires a people-centered approach to development.

While the international community continues to work toward the targets that we fear will remain unachieved under the current MDGs, we should also address new challenges as part of the post-2015 agenda. So while we remain vigilent of the progress toward health targets set for maternal and child health in least developed countries (LDCs) in Southwest Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, more generally, we should also promote universal health coverage so as to provide all individuals with health service coverage and financial protection. In other words, all people should be able to access good-quality essential health services they need, whenever they want or wherever they live, without fear of incurring impoverishing or catastrophic costs.

We all desire a future where all girls and boys have equal access to early childhood development programs and quality primary and lower secondary education. Education should be inclusive so that the persons with disabilities have access to it, too. Having acquired a quality education, all people can compete on a level playing field, and later they can take advantage of adjustments to labor market conditions by availing themselves of life-long learning in the form of complementary education or technical and vocational training.

Gender equality is also our key concern. We therefore argue for having an independent goal for gender equality and women's empowerment, in addition to other gender-related goals in health, education and peace and security.

2) Health at all ages for all individuals through universal health coverage

[1] Achieve the health-related 2000 MDGs

[2] Address the burden of non-communicable diseases, injuries and mental disorders

[3] Achieve UHC, including financial risk protection

[4] Address the social and environmental determinants of health

3) Quality education and life-long learning for all

[1] Ensure universal access to educational opportunities in primary and lower secondary education, and ensure inclusive education

[2] Ensure effective learning outcomes, including in reading and mathematics, for girls and boys, through quality basic education

[3] Provide consistent human capital development through mathematics and science education, technical education and vocational training, and engineering education

4) Gender equality and women's empowerment

[1] Ensure gender equality in terms of economic opportunities

[2] Ensure equal participation and leadership in political decision-making

Cluster 3: Quality Economic Growth

Strong growth driven by a robust and lively private sector is a precondition for poverty eradication and people-centered development. The MIC experience of economic development shows that strong private sector-led economic growth can be achieved by the development of a strong human resource base and physical infrastructure, in conjunction with a policy and an institutional environment that promotes business development and innovation. Accordingly, we should pay special attention to those sectors that have high growth potential and set targets that work to promote private investment in them.

As we have argued quality growth is achieved through incorporating the key three elements: inclusiveness, resilience and environmental sustainability. Specifically, we want a future where all the work-age population, especially youth, can find decent jobs that pay fair wages; where all productive and manufacturing industries have a controlled environmental footprint; where all people enjoy the benefits of accessible infrastructure that also serves to limit damage from disaster and any burden to the environment or the climate; where all urban dwellers can live a decent life with equitable opportunities to engage in economic activity and enjoy universal access to public urban services; and where the rural population is able to enjoy a comfortable life while being engaged in agriculture be it through improved productivity, agro-industry or related activities.

Global energy demand will increase by one-third between 2011 and 2035. The center of gravity of energy demand is expected to shift decisively towards emerging economies, which will account for more than 90 percent of net energy demand growth by 2035. While the energy sector contributes two-thirds of global greenhouse-gas emissions and its restructuring is pivotal in achieving climate change goals, equally vital is ensuring access to energy in the period when demand is outstripping the means of supplying energy.

5) Inclusive economic growth and decent jobs for all

[1] Reduce the number of youth out of employment, education, or vocational training

[2] Sustain income growth for the bottom 40 percent of earners, and ensure full and productive employment and decent jobs for all men and women who seek work

[3] Increase business startups and develop SMEs through entrepreneurial skills development

programs and financial and business advisory services

6) Sustainable energy for all through technological innovation

[1] Ensure universal access to sustainable modern energy services

[2] Improve energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transport sectors

[1] Increase the share of clean energy technologies

7) Sustainable urban development

[1] Implement comprehensive urban development to introduce standardized smart community infrastructure, energy-efficient technologies and disaster resistant infrastructure

[2] Ensure universal access to safe and affordable basic urban services and improve urban air quality

[3] Integrate economic and social links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas into national and regional development planning

8) Sustainable agriculture

[1] Invest in climate-smart agriculture, water and energy saving technologies, research and development of high-yield varieties, and the planning and implementation of drought preparedness policies.

[2] Ensure smallholder access to adequate inputs, information, irrigation schemes and other agricultural infrastructure, financial services and markets for productive and profitable agriculture.

[3] Develop and strengthen entire value chains within the agricultural sector while ensuring sustained investments based on the Principles of Responsible Agricultural Investment

Cluster 4: Environmental Sustainability and Resilience

´┐╝The Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) indicated that dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system would cause great hazard to or high vulnerability of societies and systems toward the middle of this century. In low-lying coastal zones and on small island developing countries (SIDS), people's livelihoods are on the verge of being severely and adversely affected by storm surges, coastal flooding and rising sea levels. In mega cities inland floods and extreme heat disrupt people's lives. Extreme weather events cause a breakdown in infrastructure networks and critical social services. Climate change also heightens the risk of loss of marine and coastal ecosystems, terrestrial and inland water ecosystems, biodiversity, and thus also the livelihoods that fishing communities depend upon.

In recent decades we have witnessed the impact of climate change on natural and human systems on every continent and across each ocean. These effects stand to intensify in the decades to come. So far we have engineered adaptive responses to the observed and projected impacts of climate change to reduce our risk to them. Yet, as these engineering and technological options are being integrated into broader national programs, we have come to recognize social, institutional and ecosystem-based measures as adaptive responses as well.

We know that disasters can erode or destroy development gains, and at the same time we have observed how vulnerability and exposure to disasters is increasing. Reducing the risk of disaster is thus a crucial component to be incorporated in any development program. We all desire a future where people are well prepared for and protected from disaster, living their lives free from the fear loss, injury or destitution. JICA believes disaster preparedness and investments in risk reduction ought to be given priority in national policies. We are also keenly aware that while structural and non-structural measures to reduce mortality and economic loss against natural disasters have been the emphasis here, efforts to build a resilient society can also be reinforced by measures that address cross-cutting issues such as social exclusion and poor governance. The Post-2015 Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (Post Hyogo Framework for Action), which will be agreed on in March 2015, provides the guidelines for future actions of the international community on disaster risk reduction.

Disasters are sometimes also the consequence of our own interaction with the natural environment. Overdependence on forest resources can lead not only to deforestation, but also to land degradation and water-induced disasters, resulting in loss or damage to property or farmland. We should be aware that anthropogenic interference has considerable effects on terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Overfishing and the overexploitation of wildlife can reduce fish stocks and animal populations and leave us with limited availability in the future. The international community must find a way to encourage the management of natural and marine resources in a sustainable manner. The Aichi Biodiversity Targets and Strategic Plan for 2011 to 2020 provides guidelines that can be followed.

According to reliable forecasts, the world population will grow from 7.1 billion in 2012 to 8.3 billion in 2030, placing an even heavier strain on the water supplies. Thus the post-2105 period may witness decades of severe water scarcity, during which time we need to make wiser and more efficient use of limited water resources while also stepping up the treatment of wastewater for recycling and reuse.

9) Mainstreaming climate change and disaster risk reduction

[1] Develop and implement national development and disaster management plans that integrate climate mitigation and adaptation measures into national policies

[2] Diffuse both climate adaptation and low-carbon technologies in industry, infrastructure, building and housing sectors

[3] Increase investments in disaster risk reduction both through structural and non-structural measures

[4] Reduce mortality and economic loss in high disaster risk areas

10) Biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of natural resources

[1] Strengthen integrated water resource management and improve water-use efficiency across all


[2] Control the loss of biodiversity and strengthen sustainable use of forest and marine resources

Cluster 5:Peace, Security and Good Governance as Enablers

To ensure the measures outlined in the above four clusters are effective and sustainable, we need to create an environment that is enabling. This fifth cluster of goals and targets highlights the importance of peace, security and good governance as key to establishing an enabling environment. Peace and security are also the values that embody sustainable development itself. Policies and institutions should offer people the prospect of a life lived in peace with reliable and fair mechanisms of conflict resolution and judicial systems, leaving them free from fear of crime, violence, discrimination or exploitation. We should ensure the informed consent of local communities in decision-making and natural resources management so that mutual trust is built among the stakeholders.

Good governance is also vital. We must provide equal access for all to independent, effective and responsive judicial systems and promote the rule of law. Effective, accountable and transparent public institutions, including security and police forces, are better at combating crime and establishing or implementing policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development, and thus they win greater trust from citizens and the international community alike.

11) Peaceful and inclusive societies, the rule of law and effective institutions

[1] Engage all stakeholders for inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels and build mutual trust among the participants

[2] Reduce the number of people affected by conflict, disputes and violence at all levels, organized crime and human trafficking

[3] Improve the credibility of public institutions at all levels by enhancing their effectiveness, accountability and transparency

[4] Strengthen the rule of law at all levels while establishing legal and judicial systems benefiting all the people

[5] Strengthen domestic resource mobilization by improving public financial management, eliminating corruption, and controlling the illegal flow of funds

Cluster 6: Means of Implementation or Global Partnerships

The international community shares four principles: country ownership, a focus on results, inclusive partnerships, and transparency and mutual accountability. Development cooperation post-2015 needs to be scaled up on this common basis. These principles necessitate a departure from traditional North-South relations toward a more equal partnership between states. Partnerships also need to be more inclusive, engaging multiple stakeholders who share responsibility for the supply of global public goods. In coming decades, emerging economies, the private sector, NGOs, local governments, academia and epistemic communities will play a more important role in achieving the new development goals set. Furthermore, the development of ICT will improve efficiency in operations and policy implementation and deepen interactions between these actors at an unprecedented speed. Various forms of South-South and triangular cooperation will appear so that knowledge, experience and ideas for development can be shared on a larger scale.

Under these circumstances, we need to reconfirm the relevance and importance of Official Development Assistance (ODA). First, ODA will continue to provide public goods and services at the country level, with particular focus on education, health and basic infrastructure, in particular to low-income countries. It will contribute to peace and security in conflict-affected areas by establishing disarmament operations immediately after a peace agreement and by supporting the public sector when it starts reconstruction operations that provide basic social services and infrastructure to its citizens.

Second, ODA will act as a catalyst to encourage private resource mobilization. It will facilitate the investment climate for FDI, technological innovation, venture capital and social business, by providing aid for investment in economic infrastructure and giving guidance how to better the regulatory framework.

Third, aid agencies can provide a platform for knowledge exchange. Aid can promote triangular cooperation, which will help overcome resource scarcity for development cooperation, limited experience in matching needs and resources, and complexity in institutional development. Aid agencies in developed countries have a long history of cooperation with sector agencies in partner countries. Those sector agencies are eligible candidates to become knowledge hubs for South-South knowledge sharing. Bilaterally, aid agencies can further cooperate to produce knowledge products. As such, triangular cooperation can serve as a facilitator for South-South cooperation by bearing its start-up and implementation costs.

We must also boost analytical capacity in the post-2015 era as a means to strengthen accountability and transparency, allowing us to measure and understand the impact of the policies and programs aimed at achieving the post-2015 goals and targets.

12) MeansofImplementationorGlobalPartnerships

[1] Enhance international cooperation for capacity development and knowledge sharing for joint solution discovery

[2] Encourage the planning and implementation of initiatives for sustainable development that cover a number of countries, the whole region or the whole world, reaching across national borders

[3] Enhance capacities for data collection and analysis to measure the fairness and effectiveness of policies adopted

VI. Concluding Remarks

The goals and targets we have proposed in this paper should be understood as universal goals and targets. In other words, they are aims that all the subscribers to the post-2015 development framework should work toward, whether they be states or non-state actors, or whether the participating countries are currently categorized as developed or developing. Our proposal is based on the recognition that there is broadly accepted consensus that the new generation development framework should be global and universal in nature.

That being said, we understand that the majority of the targets listed above pertain predominantly to countries that are currently categorized as developing, and especially to those countries whose progress on achieving the MDGs has lagged behind. Thus JICA believes the international community must continue its commitment to support developing country efforts toward achieving the MDG and post-2015 goals in partnership with state and non-state actors worldwide.

JICA also is of the view that the post-2015 development framework must be simple. We therefore have minimized the number of goals and targets, hoping that these can be regarded as representatives that take in important ramifications of other goals and targets even if they are not explicitly covered under a given rubric.

Finally, we would like to stress the need for urgency in taking action toward achieving the new and remaining goals, regardless of what development framework is agreed upon. Constraints such as the growing scarcity of natural resources, the expanding demand for energy and climate change are all affecting the lives of individuals more quickly and severely than ever. We face living in a world where human security is increasingly under threat. If the international community can converge on the fundamental importance of human security, we must take prompt action to further advance people-centered development on a global scale, guided by strong political leadership.