"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030

[Date] March 18, 2015
[Source] Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
[Notes] A/CONF.224/CRP.1, Original: English only
[Full text]

Contents Page

I. Preamble...3

II. Expected outcome and goal...6

III. Guiding principles...8

IV. Priorities for action...9

Priority1: Understanding disaster risk...10

Priority 2: Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk…12

Priority3: Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience...15

Priority 4: Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response, and to "Build Back Better" in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction...17

V. Role of stakeholders...20

VI. International cooperation and global partnership...22

I. Preamble

1. The present post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction was adopted at the Third World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, held from 14 to 18 March 2015 in Sendai, Miyagi, Japan, which represented a unique opportunity for countries to:

(a) Adopt a concise, focused, forward-looking and action-oriented post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction;

(b) Complete the assessment and review of the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters;*1*

(c) Consider the experience gained through the regional and national strategies/institutions and plans for disaster risk reduction and their recommendations, as well as relevant regional agreements under the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action;

(d) Identify modalities of cooperation based on commitments to implement a post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction;

(e) Determine modalities for the periodic review of the implementation of a post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction.

2. During the World Conference, States also reiterated their commitment to disaster risk reduction and the building of resilience*2* to disasters to be addressed with a renewed sense of urgency in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication and, as appropriate, to be integrated into policies, plans, programmes, and budgets at all levels and considered within relevant frameworks.

The Hyogo Framework for Action: lessons learned, gaps identified and future challenges

3. Since the adoption of the Hyogo Framework for Action in 2005, as documented in national and regional progress reports on its implementation as well as in other global reports, progress has been achieved in reducing disaster risk at local, national, regional and global levels by countries and other relevant stakeholders, leading to a decrease in mortality in the case of some hazards.*3* Reducing disaster risk is a cost effective investment in preventing future losses. Effective disaster risk management contributes to sustainable development. Countries have enhanced their capacities in disaster risk management. International mechanisms for strategic advice, coordination and partnership development for disaster risk reduction, such as the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction and the regional platforms for disaster risk reduction, as well as other relevant international and regional forums for cooperation have been instrumental in the development of policies and strategies and the advancement of knowledge and mutual learning. Overall, the Hyogo Framework for Action has been an important instrument for raising public and institutional awareness, generating political commitment and focusing and catalysing actions by a wide range of stakeholders at all levels.

4. Over the same 10-year time frame, however, disasters have continued to exact a heavy toll, and as a result the well-being and safety of persons, communities and countries as a whole have been affected. Over 700 thousand people lost their lives, over 1.4 million were injured and approximately 23 million were made homeless as a result of disasters. Overall, more than 1.5 billion people were affected by disasters in various ways. Women, children and people in vulnerable situations were disproportionately affected. The total economic loss was more than $1.3 trillion. In addition, between 2008 and 2012, 144 million people were displaced by disasters. Disasters, many of which are exacerbated by climate change and increasing in frequency and intensity, significantly impede progress towards sustainable development. Evidence indicates that exposure of persons and assets in all countries has increased faster than vulnerability*4* has decreased, thus generating new risk and a steady rise in disasters losses with a significant economic, social, health, cultural and environmental impact in the short, medium and long term, especially at the local and community level. Recurring small-scale disasters and slow-onset disasters particularly affect communities, households and small and medium-sized enterprises and constitute a high percentage of all losses. All countries — especially developing countries where the mortality and economic losses from disasters are disproportionately higher — are faced with increasing levels of possible hidden costs and challenges to meet financial and other obligations.

5. It is urgent and critical to anticipate, plan for and reduce disaster risk in order to more effectively protect persons, communities and countries, their livelihoods, health, cultural heritage, socioeconomic assets and ecosystems, and thus strengthen their resilience.

6. Enhanced work to reduce exposure and vulnerability, thus preventing the creation of new disaster risks, and accountability for disaster risk creation are needed at all levels. More dedicated action needs to be focused on tackling underlying disaster risk drivers, such as the consequences of poverty and inequality, climate change and variability, unplanned and rapid urbanization, poor land management and compounding factors such as demographic change, weak institutional arrangements, non-risk-informed policies, lack of regulation and incentives for private disaster risk reduction investment, complex supply chains, limited availability of technology, unsustainable uses of natural resources, declining ecosystems, pandemics and epidemics. Moreover, it is necessary to continue strengthening good governance in disaster risk reduction at the national, regional and global levels and improving preparedness and national coordination for disaster response, rehabilitation and reconstruction, and to use post-disaster recovery and reconstruction to "Build Back Better" supported by strengthened modalities of international cooperation.

7. There has to be a broader and a more people-centred preventive approach to disaster risk. Disaster risk reduction practices need to be multi-hazard and multisectoral based, inclusive and accessible in order to be efficient and effective. While recognizing their leading, regulatory and coordination role, Governments should engage with relevant stakeholders, including women, children and youth, persons with disabilities, poor people, migrants, indigenous peoples, volunteers, the community of practitioners and older persons in the design and implementation of policies, plans and standards. There is a need for the public and private sectors and civil society organizations, as well as academia and scientific and research institutions, to work more closely together and to create opportunities for collaboration, and for businesses to integrate disaster risk into their management practices.

8. International, regional, subregional and transboundary cooperation remains pivotal in supporting the efforts of States, their national and local authorities as well as communities and businesses to reduce disaster risk. Existing mechanisms may require strengthening in order to provide effective support and achieve better implementation. Developing countries, in particular the least developed countries, small island developing States, landlocked developing countries and African countries, as well as middle-income countries facing specific challenges, need special attention and support to augment domestic resources and capabilities through bilateral and multilateral channels to ensure adequate, sustainable, and timely means of implementation in capacity-building, financial and technical assistance and technology transfer, in accordance with international commitments.

9. Overall, the Hyogo Framework for Action has provided critical guidance in efforts to reduce disaster risk and contributed to the progress towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Its implementation has, however, highlighted a number of gaps in addressing the underlying disaster risk factors, in the formulation of goals and priorities for action,*5* in the need to foster disaster resilience at all levels and in ensuring adequate means of implementation. The gaps indicate a need to develop an action-oriented framework that Governments and relevant stakeholders can implement in a supportive and complementary manner, and which helps to identify disaster risks to be managed and guides investment to improve resilience.

10. Ten years after the Hyogo Framework for Action, disasters continue to undermine efforts to achieve sustainable development.

11. The intergovernmental negotiations on the post-2015 development agenda, financing for development, climate change and disaster risk reduction provide the international community with a unique opportunity to enhance coherence across policies, institutions, goals, indicators, and measurement systems for implementation, while respecting their respective mandates. Ensuring credible links, as appropriate, between these processes will contribute to building resilience and achieving the global goal to eradicate poverty.

12. It is recalled that the outcome of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development 2012, "The Future We Want", which called for disaster risk reduction and building of resilience to disasters to be addressed with a renewed sense of urgency in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication and, as appropriate, to be integrated at all levels. The Conference also reaffirms all the principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development.

13. Addressing climate change as one of the drivers of disaster risk, while respecting the mandate of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change*6*, represents an opportunity to reduce disaster risk in a meaningful and coherent manner throughout the inter-related intergovernmental processes.

14. Against this background, and in order to reduce disaster risk, there is a need to address existing challenges and prepare for future ones by focusing on: monitoring, assessing and understanding disaster risk and sharing such information and how it is created; strengthening disaster risk governance and coordination across relevant institutions and sectors and the full and meaningful participation of relevant stakeholders at appropriate levels; investing in the economic, social, health, cultural and educational resilience of persons, communities and countries and in the environment, also through technology and research; enhancing multi-hazard early warning systems, preparedness, response, recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction. To complement national action and capacity, there is a need to enhance international cooperation between developed and developing countries and between States and international organizations.

15. The present framework will apply to the risk of small-scale and large-scale, frequent and infrequent, sudden and slow-onset disasters, caused by natural or man-made hazards as well as related environmental, technological and biological hazards and risks. It aims to guide the multi-hazard management of disaster risk in development at all levels as well as within and across all sectors.

II. Expected outcome and goal

16. While some progress in building resilience and reducing losses and damages has been achieved, a substantial reduction of disaster risk requires perseverance and persistence, with a more explicit focus on people and their health and livelihoods, and regular follow-up. Building on the Hyogo Framework for Action, the present framework aims to achieve the following outcome over the next 15 years:

The substantial reduction of disaster risk and losses in lives, livelihoods and health and in the economic, physical, social, cultural and environmental assets of persons, businesses, communities and countries

The realization of this outcome requires the strong commitment and involvement of political leadership in every country at all levels in the implementation and follow-up of this framework and in the creation of the necessary conducive and enabling environment.

17. To attain the expected outcome, the following goal must be pursued:

Prevent new and reduce existing disaster risk through the implementation of integrated and inclusive economic, structural, legal, social, health, cultural, educational, environmental, technological, political and institutional measures that prevent and reduce hazard exposure and vulnerability to disaster, increase preparedness for response and recovery, and thus strengthen resilience

The pursuance of this goal requires the enhancement of the implementation capacity and capability of developing countries, in particular the least developed countries, small island developing States, landlocked developing countries and African countries, as well as middle-income countries facing specific challenges, including the mobilization of support through international cooperation for the provision of means of implementation in accordance with their national priorities.

18. To support the assessment of global progress in achieving the outcome and goal of this framework, seven global targets have been agreed. These targets will be measured at the global level and will be complemented by work to develop appropriate indicators.

National targets and indicators will contribute to the achievement of the outcome and goal of this framework.

The seven global targets are:

(a) Substantially reduce global disaster mortality by 2030, aiming to lower average per 100,000 global mortality between 2020-2030 compared to 2005-2015.

(b) Substantially reduce the number of affected people globally by 2030, aiming to lower the average global figure per 100,000 between 2020-2030 compared to 2005-2015. *7*

(c) Reduce direct disaster economic loss in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP) by 2030.

(d) Substantially reduce disaster damage to critical infrastructure and disruption of basic services, among them health and educational facilities, including through developing their resilience by 2030.

(e) Substantially increase the number of countries with national and local disaster risk reduction strategies by 2020.

(f) Substantially enhance international cooperation to developing countries through adequate and sustainable support to complement their national actions for implementation of this framework by 2030.

(g) Substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems and disaster risk information and assessments to the people by 2030.

III. Guiding principles

19. Drawing from the principles contained in the Yokohama Strategy for a Safer World: Guidelines for Natural Disaster Prevention, Preparedness and Mitigation and its Plan of Action*8* and the Hyogo Framework for Action, the implementation of the present framework will be guided by the following principles, while taking into account national circumstances, and consistent with domestic laws as well as international obligations and commitments:

(a) Each State has the primary responsibility to prevent and reduce disaster risk, including through international, regional, subregional, transboundary and bilateral cooperation. The reduction of disaster risk is a common concern for all States and the extent to which developing countries are able to effectively enhance and implement national disaster risk reduction policies and measures in the context of their respective circumstances and capabilities can be further enhanced through the provision of sustainable international cooperation;

(b) Disaster risk reduction requires that responsibilities be shared by central Governments and relevant national authorities, sectors and stakeholders, as appropriate to their national circumstances and system of governance;

(c) Managing the risk of disasters is aimed at protecting persons and their property, health, livelihoods and productive assets, as well as cultural and environmental assets, while promoting and protecting all human rights, including the right to development;

(d) Disaster risk reduction requires an all-of-society engagement and partnership. It also requires empowerment and inclusive, accessible and non- discriminatory participation, paying special attention to people disproportionately affected by disasters, especially the poorest. A gender, age, disability and cultural perspective in all policies and practices; and the promotion of women and youth leadership; in this context, special attention should be paid to the improvement of organized voluntary work of citizens;

(e) Disaster risk reduction and management depends on coordination mechanisms within and across sectors and with relevant stakeholders at all levels, and. it requires the full engagement of all State institutions of an executive and legislative nature at national and local levels and a clear articulation of responsibilities across public and private stakeholders, including business and academia, to ensure mutual outreach, partnership, complementarity in roles and accountability and follow-up;

(f) While the enabling, guiding and coordinating role of national and federal State Governments remain essential, it is necessary to empower local authorities and local communities to reduce disaster risk, including through resources, incentives and decision-making responsibilities, as appropriate;

(g) Disaster risk reduction requires a multi-hazard approach and inclusive risk-informed decision-making based on the open exchange and dissemination of disaggregated data, including by sex, age and disability, as well as on the easily accessible, up-to-date, comprehensible, science-based, non-sensitive risk information, complemented by traditional knowledge;

(h) The development, strengthening and implementation of relevant policies, plans, practices and mechanisms need to aim at coherence, as appropriate, across sustainable development and growth, food security, health and safety, climate change and variability, environmental management and disaster risk reduction agendas. Disaster risk reduction is essential to achieve sustainable development;

(i) While the drivers of disaster risk may be local, national, regional or global in scope, disaster risks have local and specific characteristics that must be understood for the determination of measures to reduce disaster risk;

(j) Addressing underlying disaster risk factors through disaster risk-informed public and private investments are more cost-effective than primary reliance on post-disaster response and recovery, and contribute to sustainable development;

(k) In the post-disaster recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction phase it is critical to prevent the creation of and to reduce disaster risk by "Building Back Better" and increasing public education and awareness of disaster risk;

(l) An effective and meaningful global partnership and the further strengthening of international cooperation, including the fulfilment of respective commitments of official development assistance by developed countries, are essential for effective disaster risk management;

(m) Developing countries, in particular the least developed countries, small island developing States, landlocked developing countries and African countries, as well as middle-income and other countries facing specific disaster risk challenges need adequate, sustainable and timely provision of support, including through finance, technology transfer and capacity-building from developed countries and partners tailored to their needs and priorities, as identified by them.

IV. Priorities for action

20. Taking into account the experience gained through the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action, and in pursuance of the expected outcome and goal, there is a need for focused action within and across sectors by States at local, national, regional and global levels in the following four priority areas:

1. Understanding disaster risk;

2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk;

3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience;

4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response, and to "Build Back Better" in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction.

21. In their approach to disaster risk reduction, States, regional and international organizations and other relevant stakeholders should take into consideration the key activities listed under each of these four priorities and should implement them, as appropriate, taking into consideration respective capacities and capabilities, in line with national laws and regulations.

22. In the context of increasing global interdependence, concerted international cooperation, an enabling international environment and means of implementation are needed to stimulate and contribute to developing the knowledge, capacities and motivation for disaster risk reduction at all levels, in particular for developing countries.

Priority 1. Understanding disaster risk

23. Policies and practices for disaster risk management should be based on an understanding of disaster risk in all its dimensions of vulnerability, capacity, exposure of persons and assets, hazard characteristics and the environment. Such knowledge can be leveraged for the purpose of pre-disaster risk assessment, for prevention and mitigation and for the development and implementation of appropriate preparedness and effective response to disasters.

National and local levels

24. To achieve this, it is important to:

(a) Promote the collection, analysis, management and use of relevant data and practical information. Ensure its dissemination, taking into account the needs of different categories of users, as appropriate;

(b) Encourage the use of and strengthening of baseline and periodically assess disaster risks, vulnerability, capacity, exposure, hazard characteristics and their possible sequential effects at the relevant social and spatial scale on ecosystems in line with national circumstances;

(c) Develop, update periodically and disseminate, as appropriate, location-based disaster risk information, including risk maps, to decision makers, the general public and communities at risk to disaster in an appropriate format by using, as applicable, geospatial information technology;

(d) Systematically evaluate, record, share and publicly account for disaster losses and understand the economic, social, health, education, environmental and cultural heritage impacts, as appropriate, in the context of event-specific hazard- exposure and vulnerability information;

(e) Make non-sensitive hazard exposure, vulnerability, risk, disasters and loss disaggregated information freely available and accessible, as appropriate;

(f) Promote real-time access to reliable data, make use of space and in situ information, including geographic information systems (GIS), and use information and communications technology innovations to enhance measurement tools and the collection, analysis and dissemination of data;

(g) Build the knowledge of government officials at all levels, civil society, communities and volunteers, as well as the private sector, through sharing experiences, lessons learned, good practices and training and education on disaster risk reduction, including the use of existing training and education mechanisms and peer learning;

(h) Promote and improve dialogue and cooperation among scientific and technological communities, other relevant stakeholders and policymakers in order to facilitate a science-policy interface for effective decision-making in disaster risk management;

(i) Ensure the use of traditional, indigenous and local knowledge and practices, as appropriate, to complement scientific knowledge in disaster risk assessment and the development and implementation of policies, strategies, plans and programmes of specific sectors, with a cross-sectoral approach, which should be tailored to localities and to the context;

(j) Strengthen technical and scientific capacity to capitalize on and consolidate existing knowledge, and to develop and apply methodologies and models to assess disaster risks, vulnerabilities and exposure to all hazards;

(k) Promote investments in innovation and technology development in long-term, multi-hazard and solution-driven research in disaster risk management to address gaps, obstacles, interdependencies and social, economic, educational and environmental challenges and disaster risks;

(l) Promote the incorporation of disaster risk knowledge, including disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery and rehabilitation, in formal and non-formal education, as well as in civic education at all levels, as well as in professional education and training;

(m) Promote national strategies to strengthen public education and awareness in disaster risk reduction, including disaster risk information and knowledge, through campaigns, social media and community mobilization, taking into account specific audiences and their needs;

(n) Apply risk information in all its dimensions of vulnerability, capacity and exposure of persons, communities, countries and assets, as well as hazard characteristics, to develop and implement disaster risk reduction policies;

(o) Enhance collaboration among people at the local level to disseminate disaster risk information through the involvement of community-based organizations and non-governmental organizations.

Global and regional levels

25. To achieve this, it is important to:

(a) Enhance the development and dissemination of science-based methodologies and tools to record and share disaster losses and relevant disaggregated data and statistics, as well as to strengthen disaster risk modelling, assessment, mapping, monitoring and multi-hazard early warning systems;

(b) Promote the conduct of comprehensive surveys on multi-hazard disaster risks and the development of regional disaster risk assessments and maps, including climate change scenarios;

(c) Promote and enhance, through international cooperation, including technology transfer, access to and the sharing and use of non-sensitive data, information, as appropriate, communications and geospatial and space-based technologies and related services. Maintain and strengthen in situ and remotely-sensed earth and climate observations. Strengthen the utilization of media, including social media, traditional media, big data and mobile phone networks to support national measures for successful disaster risk communication, as appropriate and in accordance with national laws;

(d) Promote common efforts in partnership with the scientific and technological community, academia and the private sector to establish, disseminate and share good practices internationally;

(e) Support the development of local, national, regional and global user-friendly systems and services for the exchange of information on good practices, cost-effective and easy-to-use disaster risk reduction technologies and lessons learned on policies, plans and measures for disaster risk reduction;

(f) Develop effective global and regional campaigns as instruments for public awareness and education, building on the existing ones (for example, the "One Million Safe Schools and Hospitals" initiative, the "Making Cities Resilient: my city is getting ready!" campaign, the United Nations Sasakawa Award for Disaster Reduction and the annual United Nations International Day for Disaster Reduction), to promote a culture of disaster prevention, resilience and responsible citizenship, generate understanding of disaster risk, support mutual learning, share experiences. Encourage public and private stakeholders to actively engage in such initiatives, and develop new ones at local, national, regional and global levels;

(g) Enhance the scientific and technical work on disaster risk reduction and its mobilization through the coordination of existing networks and scientific research institutions at all levels and all regions with the support of the UNISDR Scientific and Technical Advisory Group in order to: strengthen the evidence-base in support of the implementation of this framework; promote scientific research of disaster risk patterns, causes and effects; disseminate risk information with the best use of geospatial information technology; provide guidance on methodologies and standards for risk assessments, disaster risk modelling and the use of data; identify research and technology gaps and set recommendations for research priority areas in disaster risk reduction; promote and support the availability and application of science and technology to decision-making; contribute to the update of the 2009 UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction; use post-disaster reviews as opportunities to enhance learning and public policy; and disseminate studies;

(h) Encourage the availability of copyrighted and patented materials including through negotiated concessions as appropriate.

(i) Enhance access to and support for innovation and technology as well as in long-term, multi-hazard and solution-driven research and development in disaster risk management.

Priority 2. Strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk

26. Disaster risk governance at the national, regional and global levels is of great importance for an effective and efficient management of disaster risk. Clear vision, plans, competence, guidance and coordination within and across sectors as well as participation of relevant stakeholders are needed. Strengthening disaster risk governance for prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery, and rehabilitation is therefore necessary and fosters collaboration and partnership across mechanisms and institutions for the implementation of instruments relevant to disaster risk reduction and sustainable development.

National and local levels

27. To achieve this, it is important to:

(a) Mainstream and integrate disaster risk reduction within and across all sectors. Review and promote the coherence and further development, as appropriate, of national and local frameworks of laws, regulations and public policies, which, by defining roles and responsibilities, guide the public and private sectors to: (i) address disaster risk in publically owned, managed or regulated services and infrastructures; (ii) promote and provide incentives, as relevant, for actions by persons, households, communities and businesses; (iii) enhance relevant mechanisms and initiatives for disaster risk transparency, which may include financial incentives, public awareness-raising and training initiatives, reporting requirements and legal and administrative measures; and (iv) put in place coordination and organizational structures;

(b) Adopt and implement national and local disaster risk reduction strategies and plans, across different timescales with targets, indicators and time frames, aimed at preventing the creation of risk, the reduction of existing risk and the strengthening of economic, social, health and environmental resilience;

(c) Carry out an assessment of the technical, financial and administrative disaster risk management capacity to deal with the identified risks at local and national level;

(d) Encourage the establishment of necessary mechanisms and incentives to ensure high levels of compliance with existing safety-enhancing provisions of sectoral laws and regulations, including those addressing land use and urban planning, building codes, environmental and resource management and health and safety standards, and update them, where needed, to ensure an adequate focus on disaster risk management;

(e) Develop and strengthen, as appropriate, mechanisms to follow-up, periodically assess and publicly report on progress on national and local plans. Promote public scrutiny and encourage institutional debates, including by parliamentarians and other relevant officials, on progress reports of local and national plans for disaster risk reduction;

(f) Assign, as appropriate, clear roles and tasks to community representatives within disaster risk management institutions and processes and decision-making through relevant legal frameworks. Undertake comprehensive public and community consultations during the development of such laws and regulations to support their implementation;

(g) Establish and strengthen government coordination forums composed of relevant stakeholders at national and local levels, such as national and local platforms for disaster risk reduction, and a designated national focal point for implementing the post-2015 framework. It is necessary for such mechanisms to have a strong foundation in national institutional frameworks with clearly assigned responsibilities and authority to, inter alia, identify sectoral and multisectoral disaster risk, build awareness and knowledge of disaster risk through sharing and dissemination of non-sensitive disaster risk information and data, contribute to and coordinate reports on local and national disaster risk, coordinate public awareness campaigns on disaster risk, facilitate and support local multi-sectoral cooperation

(e.g. among local governments), contribute to the determination of and reporting on national and local disaster risk management plans and all policies relevant for disaster risk management. These responsibilities should be established through laws, regulations, standards and procedures;

(h) Empower local authorities, as appropriate, through regulatory and financial means to work and coordinate with civil society, communities and indigenous peoples and migrants in disaster risk management at the local level;

(i) Encourage parliamentarians to support the implementation of disaster risk reduction through developing new or amending relevant legislation and setting budget allocations;

(j) Promote the development of quality standards, such as certifications and awards for disaster risk management, with the participation of the private sector, civil society, professional associations, scientific organizations and the United Nations;

(k) Formulate public policies, where applicable, aimed at addressing the issues of prevention or relocation, where possible, of human settlements in disaster risk zones, subject to national law and legal systems.

Global and regional levels

28. To achieve this, it is important to:

(a) Guide action at the regional level through agreed regional and subregional strategies and mechanisms for cooperation for disaster risk reduction, as appropriate in the light of this framework, in order to foster more efficient planning, create common information systems and exchange good practices and programmes for cooperation and capacity development, in particular to address common and transboundary disaster risks;

(b) Foster collaboration across global and regional mechanisms and institutions for the implementation and coherence of instruments and tools relevant to disaster risk reduction, such as for climate change, biodiversity, sustainable development, poverty eradication, environment, agriculture, health, food and nutrition and others, as appropriate;

(c) Actively engage in the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction, the regional and subregional platforms for disaster risk reduction and the thematic platforms in order to forge partnerships, periodically assess progress on implementation and share practice and knowledge on disaster risk-informed policies, programmes and investments, including on development and climate issues, as appropriate, as well as promote the integration of disaster risk management in other relevant sectors. Regional intergovernmental organizations should play an important role in the regional platforms for disaster risk reduction;

(d) Promote transboundary cooperation to enable policy and planning for the implementation of ecosystem-based approaches with regard to shared resources, such as within river basins and along coastlines, to build resilience and reduce disaster risk, including epidemic and displacement risk;

(e) Promote mutual learning and exchange of good practices and information through, inter-alia, voluntary and self-initiated peer reviews among interested states;

(f) Promote the strengthening of, as appropriate, international voluntary mechanisms for monitoring and assessment of disaster risks, including relevant data and information, benefiting from the experience of the Hyogo Framework for Action Monitor. Said mechanisms may promote the exchange of non-sensitive information on disaster risks to the relevant national Government bodies and stakeholders in the interest of sustainable social and economic development;

Priority 3. Investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience

29. Public and private investment in disaster risk prevention and reduction through structural and non-structural measures are essential to enhance the economic, social, health and cultural resilience of persons, communities, countries and their assets, as well as the environment. These can be drivers of innovation, growth and job creation. Such measures are cost-effective and instrumental to save lives, prevent and reduce losses and ensure effective recovery and rehabilitation.

National and local levels

30. To achieve this, it is important to:

(a) Allocate the necessary resources, including finance and logistics, as appropriate, at all levels of administration for the development and the implementation of disaster risk reduction strategies policies, plans, laws and regulations in all relevant sectors;

(b) Promote mechanisms for disaster risk transfer and insurance, risk sharing and retention and financial protection, as appropriate, for both public and private investment in order to reduce the financial impact of disasters on governments and societies, in urban and rural areas;

(c) Strengthen, as appropriate, disaster resilient public and private investments, particularly through: structural, non-structural and functional disaster risk prevention and reduction measures in critical facilities, in particular schools and hospitals and physical infrastructures; building better from the start to withstand hazards through proper design and construction, including the use of the principles of universal design and the standardization of building materials; retrofitting and rebuilding; nurturing a culture of maintenance; and taking into account economic, social, structural, technological and environmental impact assessments;

(d) Protect or support the protection of cultural and collecting institutions and other sites of historical, cultural heritage and religious interest;

(e) Promote the disaster risk resilience of work places through structural and non-structural measures;

(f) Promote the mainstreaming of disaster risk assessments into land-use policy development and implementation, including urban planning, land degradation assessments and informal and non-permanent housing, and the use of guidelines and follow-up tools informed by anticipated demographic and environmental changes;

(g) Promote the mainstreaming of disaster risk assessment, mapping and management into rural development planning and management of, inter alia, mountains, rivers, coastal flood plain areas, drylands, wetlands and all other areas prone to droughts and flooding, including through the identification of areas that are safe for human settlement and at the same time preserving ecosystem functions that help reduce risks;

(h) Encourage the revision of existing or the development of new building codes, standards, rehabilitation and reconstruction practices at the national or local levels, as appropriate, with the aim of making them more applicable in the local context, particularly in informal and marginal human settlements, and reinforce the capacity to implement, survey and enforce such codes, through an appropriate approach, with a view to fostering disaster-resistant structures;

(i) Enhance the resilience of national health systems, including by integrating disaster risk management into primary, secondary and tertiary health care, especially at the local level; developing the capacity of health workers in understanding disaster risk and applying and implementing disaster risk reduction approaches in health work; and promoting and enhancing the training capacities in the field of disaster medicine; and supporting and training community health groups in disaster risk reduction approaches in health programmes, in collaboration with other sectors, as well as in the implementation of the International Health Regulations (2005) of the World Health Organization;

(j) Strengthen the design and implementation of inclusive policies and social safety-net mechanisms, including through community involvement, integrated with livelihood enhancement programmes, and access to basic health care services, including maternal, newborn and child health, sexual and reproductive health, food security and nutrition, housing and education, towards the eradication of poverty, to find durable solutions in the post-disaster phase and to empower and assist people disproportionately affected by disasters;

(k) People with life threatening and chronic disease, due to their particular needs, should be included in the design of policies and plans to manage their risks before, during and after disasters, including having access to life-saving services;

(l) Encourage the adoption of policies and programmes addressing disaster-induced human mobility to strengthen the resilience of affected people and that of host communities as per national laws and circumstances;

(m) Promote, as appropriate, the integration of disaster risk reduction considerations and measures in financial and fiscal instruments;

(n) Strengthen the sustainable use and management of ecosystems and implement integrated environmental and natural resource management approaches that incorporate disaster risk reduction;

(o) Increase business resilience and protection of livelihoods and productive assets throughout the supply chains. Ensure continuity of services and integrate disaster risk management into business models and practices;

(p) Strengthen the protection of livelihoods and productive assets, including livestock, working animals, tools and seeds;

(q) Promote and integrate disaster risk management approaches throughout the tourism industry, given the often heavy reliance on tourism as a key economic driver.

Global and regional levels

31. To achieve this, it is important to:

(a) Promote coherence across systems, sectors and organizations related to sustainable development and to disaster risk reduction in their policies, plans, programmes and processes;

(b) Promote the development and strengthening of disaster risk transfer and sharing mechanisms and instruments in close cooperation with partners in the international community, business, international financial institutions and other relevant stakeholders;

(c) Promote cooperation between academic, scientific and research entities and networks and the private sector to develop new products and services to help reduce disaster risk, in particular those that would assist developing countries and their specific challenges;

(d) Encourage the coordination between global and regional financial institutions with a view to assessing and anticipating the potential economic and social impacts of disasters;

(e) Enhance cooperation between health authorities and other relevant stakeholders to strengthen country capacity for disaster risk management for health, the implementation of the International Health Regulations (2005) and the building of resilient health systems;

(f) Strengthen and promote the collaboration and capacity-building for the protection of productive assets including livestock, working animals, tools and seeds;

(g) Promote and support the development of social safety nets as disaster risk reduction measures linked to and integrated with livelihood enhancement programmes in order to ensure resilience to shocks at the household and community levels;

(h) Strengthen and broaden international efforts aimed at eradicating hunger and poverty through disaster risk reduction;

(i) Promote and support collaboration among relevant public and private stakeholders to enhance the resilience of business to disasters.

Priority 4. Enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response and to "Build Back Better" in recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction

32. The steady growth of disaster risk, including the increase of people and assets exposure, combined with the lessons learned from past disasters, indicates the need to further strengthen disaster preparedness for response, take action in anticipation of events, integrate disaster risk reduction in response preparedness and that ensure capacities are in place for effective response and recovery at all levels. Empowering women and persons with disabilities to publicly lead and promote gender equitable and universally accessible response, recovery rehabilitation and reconstruction approaches are key. Disasters have demonstrated that the recovery, rehabilitation and reconstruction phase, which needs to be prepared ahead of the disaster, is a critical opportunity to build back better, including through integrating disaster risk reduction into development measures, making nations and communities resilient to disasters.

National and local levels

33. To achieve this, it is important to:

(a) Prepare or review and periodically update disaster preparedness and contingency policies, plans and programmes with the involvement of the relevant institutions, considering climate change scenarios and their impact on disaster risk, and facilitating, as appropriate, the participation of all sectors and relevant stakeholders;

(b) Invest in, develop, maintain and strengthen people-centred multi-hazard, multisectoral forecasting and early warning systems, disaster risk and emergency communications mechanisms, social technologies and hazard -monitoring telecommunications systems. Develop such systems through a participatory process. Tailor them to the needs of users, including social and cultural requirements, in particular gender. Promote the application of simple and low-cost early warning equipment and facilities and broaden release channels for natural disaster early warning information;

(c) Promote the resilience of new and existing critical infrastructure, including water, transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, educational facilities, hospitals and other health facilities, to ensure that they remain safe, effective and operational during and after disasters in order to provide live-saving and essential services;

(d) Establish community centres for the promotion of public awareness and the stockpiling of necessary materials to implement rescue and relief activities;

(e) Adopt public policies and actions that support the role of public service workers to establish or strengthen coordination and funding mechanisms and procedures for relief assistance and to plan and prepare for post-disaster recovery and reconstruction;

(f) Train the existing workforce and voluntary workers in disaster response and strengthen technical and logistical capacities to ensure better response in emergencies;

(g) Ensure the continuity of operations and planning, including social and economic recovery, and the provision of basic services in the post-disaster phase;

(h) Promote regular disaster preparedness, response and recovery exercises, including evacuation drills, training and the establishment of area-based support systems, with a view to ensuring rapid and effective response to disasters and related displacement, including access to safe shelter, essential food and non-food relief supplies, as appropriate to local needs;

(i) Promote the cooperation of diverse institutions, multiple authorities and related stakeholders at all levels, including affected communities and business, in view of the complex and costly nature of post-disaster reconstruction, under the coordination of national authorities;

(j) Promote the incorporation of disaster risk management into post-disaster recovery and rehabilitation processes, facilitate the link between relief, rehabilitation and development. Use opportunities during the recovery phase to develop capacities that reduce disaster risk in the short, medium and long term, including through the development of measures such as land use planning, structural standards improvement and the sharing of expertise, knowledge, post-disaster reviews and lessons learned. Integrate post-disaster reconstruction into the economic and social sustainable development of affected areas. This should also apply to temporary settlements for persons displaced by disaster;

(k) Develop guidance for preparedness for disaster reconstruction, such as on land use planning and structural standards improvement, including by learning from the recovery and reconstruction programmes over the decade since the adoption of the Hyogo Framework for Action, and exchanging experiences, knowledge and lessons learned;

(l) Consider the relocation of public facilities and infrastructures to areas outside the risk range, wherever possible, in the post-disaster reconstruction process, in consultation with the people concerned, as appropriate;

(m) Strengthen the capacity of local authorities to evacuate persons living in disaster-prone areas;

(n) Establish a mechanism of case registry and a database of mortality caused by disaster in order to improve the prevention of morbidity and mortality;

(o) Enhance recovery schemes to provide psychosocial support and mental health services for all people in need;

(p) Review and strengthen, as appropriate, national laws and procedures on international cooperation, based on the guidelines for the domestic facilitation and regulation of international disaster relief and initial recovery assistance.

Global and regional levels

34. To achieve this, it is important to:

(a) Develop and strengthen, as appropriate, coordinated regional approaches and operational mechanisms to prepare for and ensure rapid and effective disaster response in situations that exceed national coping capacities;

(b) Promote the further development and dissemination of instruments, such as standards, codes, operational guides and other guidance instruments to support coordinated action in disaster preparedness and response and facilitate information sharing on lessons learned and best practices for policy practice and post-disaster reconstruction programmes;

(c) Promote the further development of and investment in effective, nationally-compatible, regional multi-hazard early warning mechanisms, where relevant, in line with the Global Framework for Climate Services, and facilitate the sharing and exchange of information across all countries;

(d) Enhance international mechanisms, such as the International Recovery Platform, for the sharing of experience and learning among countries and all relevant stakeholders;

(e) Support, as appropriate, relevant United Nations entities to strengthen and implement global mechanisms on hydrometeorological issues, in order to raise awareness and improve understanding of water-related disaster risks and their impact on society, and advance strategies for disaster risk reduction upon request of States;

(f) Support regional cooperation to deal with disaster preparedness, including through common exercise and drills;

(g) Promote regional protocols to facilitate sharing of response capacities and resources during and after disasters;

(h) Train the existing workforce and volunteers in disaster response.

V. Role of stakeholders

35. While States have the overall responsibility for reducing disaster risk, it is a shared responsibility between Governments and relevant stakeholders. In particular, non-state stakeholders play an important role as enablers in providing support to States, in accordance with national policies, laws and regulations, in the implementation of the framework at local, national, regional and global levels. Their commitment, goodwill, knowledge, experience and resources will be required.

36. When determining specific roles and responsibilities for stakeholders, and at the same time building on existing relevant international instruments, States should encourage the following actions on the part of all public and private stakeholders:

(a) Civil society, volunteers, organized voluntary work organizations and community-based organizations to: participate, in collaboration with public institutions, to, inter alia, provide specific knowledge and pragmatic guidance in the context of the development and implementation of normative frameworks, standards and plans for disaster risk reduction; engage in the implementation of local, national, regional and global plans and strategies; contribute to and support public awareness, a culture of prevention and education on disaster risk; and advocate for resilient communities and an inclusive and all-of-society disaster risk management which strengthen the synergies across groups, as appropriate. On this point, it should be noted that:

(i) Women and their participation are critical to effectively managing disaster risk and designing, resourcing and implementing gender-sensitive disaster risk reduction policies, plans and programmes; and adequate capacity building measures need to be taken to empower women for preparedness as well as build their capacity for alternate livelihood means in post-disaster situations;

(ii) Children and youth are agents of change and should be given the space and modalities to contribute to disaster risk reduction, in accordance with legislation, national practice and educational curricula;

(iii) Persons with disabilities and their organizations are critical in the assessment of disaster risk and in designing and implementing plans tailored to specific requirements, taking into consideration, inter alia, the principles of universal design;

(iv) Older persons have years of knowledge, skills and wisdom, which are invaluable assets to reduce disaster risk, and they should be included in the design of policies, plans and mechanisms, including for early warning;

(v) Indigenous peoples, through their experience and traditional knowledge, provide an important contribution to the development and implementation of plans and mechanisms, including for early warning;

(vi) Migrants contribute to the resilience of communities and societies and their knowledge, skills and capacities can be useful in the design and implementation of disaster risk reduction.

(b) Academia, scientific and research entities and networks to: focus on the disaster risk factors and scenarios, including emerging disaster risks, in the medium and long term; increase research for regional, national and local application; support action by local communities and authorities; and support the interface between policy and science for decision-making;

(c) Business, professional associations and private sector financial institutions, including financial regulators and accounting bodies, as well as philanthropic foundations, to: integrate disaster risk management, including business continuity, into business models and practices via disaster risk-informed investments, especially in micro, small and medium-sized enterprises; engage in awareness-raising and training for their employees and customers; engage in and support research and innovation as well as technological development for disaster risk management; share and disseminate knowledge, practices and non-sensitive data; and actively participate, as appropriate and under the guidance of the public sector, in the development of normative frameworks and technical standards that incorporate disaster risk management;

(d) Media to: take an active and inclusive role at local, national, regional and global levels in contributing to the raising of public awareness and understanding, and disseminate accurate and non-sensitive disaster risk, hazard and disaster information, including on small-scale disasters, in a simple, transparent, easy-to-understand and accessible manner, in close cooperation with national authorities; adopt specific disaster risk reduction communication policies; support, as appropriate, early warning systems and life-saving protective measures; and stimulate a culture of prevention and strong community involvement in sustained public education campaigns and public consultations at all levels of society, in accordance with national practices.

37. With reference to the General Assembly resolution 68/211 of 20 December 2013, commitments by relevant stakeholders are important to identify modalities of cooperation and implement this framework. Those commitments should be specific and time-bound in order to support the development of partnerships at local, national, regional and global levels and the implementation of local and national disaster risk reduction strategies and plans. All stakeholders are encouraged to publicize their commitments and their fulfilment in support of the implementation of the framework, or of the national and local disaster risk management plans, through the website of the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR).

VI. International cooperation and global partnership

General considerations

38. Given their different capacities as well as the linkage between the level of support provided to them and the extent to which they will be able to implement the present framework, developing countries require enhanced provisions of means of implementation, including adequate, sustainable, and timely resources, through international cooperation and global partnership for development, and continued international support, to strengthen their efforts to reduce disaster risk.

39. International cooperation for disaster risk reduction includes a variety of sources and is a critical element in supporting the efforts of developing countries to reduce disaster risk.

40. In addressing economic disparity and disparity in technological innovation and research capacity among countries it is crucial to enhance technology transfer involving a process of enabling and facilitating flows of skill, knowledge, ideas, know-how and technology from developed to developing countries in the implementation of the present framework.

41. Disaster-prone developing countries, in particular the least developed countries, small island developing States, landlocked developing countries and African countries, as well as middle-income countries facing specific challenges, warrant particular attention in view of their higher vulnerability and risk levels, which often greatly exceed their capacity to respond to and recover from disasters. Such vulnerability requires the urgent strengthening of international cooperation and ensuring genuine and durable partnerships at the regional and international levels in order to support developing countries to implement this framework in accordance with their national priorities and needs. Similar attention and appropriate assistance should also be extended to other disaster-prone countries with specific characteristics, such as archipelagic countries, as well as countries with extensive coastlines.

42. Disasters can disproportionately affect small island developing States, due to their unique and particular vulnerabilities. The effects of disasters, some of which have increased in intensity and have been exacerbated by climate change, impede their progress towards sustainable development. Given the special case of small island developing States, there is a critical need to build resilience and to provide particular support through the implementation of the outcome of the SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway*9* in the area of disaster risk reduction.

43. African countries continue to face challenges related to disasters and increasing risks, including those related to enhancing resilience of infrastructure, health and livelihoods. These challenges require increased international cooperation and the provision of adequate support to African countries, to allow for the implementation of this framework.

44. North-South cooperation, complemented by South-South and triangular cooperation, has proven to be key to reducing disaster risk and there is a need to strengthen cooperation in both areas further. Partnerships play an additional important role by harnessing the full potential of countries and supporting their national capacities in disaster risk management and in improving the social, health and economic well-being of individuals, communities and countries.

45. Efforts by developing countries offering South-South and triangular cooperation should not reduce North-South cooperation from developed countries as they complement North-South cooperation.

46. Financing from a variety of international sources, public and private transfer of reliable, affordable, appropriate and modern environmentally sound technology, on concessional and preferential terms as mutually agreed; capacity-building assistance for developing countries; and enabling institutional and policy environments at all levels are critically important means of reducing disaster risk.

Means of implementation

47. To achieve this, it is necessary to:

(a) Reaffirm that developing countries need enhanced provision of coordinated, sustained, and adequate international support for disaster risk reduction, in particular for the least developed countries, small island developing States, landlocked developing countries and African countries, as well as middle-income countries facing specific challenges, through bilateral and multilateral channels, including through enhanced technical and financial support, and technology transfer on concessional and preferential terms as mutually agreed, for the development and strengthening of their capacities;

(b) Enhance access of states, in particular developing countries to finance, environmentally sound technology, science and inclusive innovation, as well as knowledge and information-sharing through existing mechanisms, namely bilateral, regional and multilateral collaborative arrangements, including the United Nations and other relevant bodies;

(c) Promote the use and expansion of thematic platforms of cooperation such as global technology pools and global systems to share know-how, innovation and research and to ensure access to technology and information in disaster risk reduction.

(d) Incorporate disaster risk reduction measures into multilateral and bilateral development assistance programmes within and across all sectors, as appropriate, related to poverty reduction, sustainable development, natural resource management, environment, urban development and adaptation to climate change;

Support from international organizations

48. To support the implementation of this framework, the following is necessary:

(a) The United Nations and other international and regional organizations, international and regional financial institutions and donor agencies engaged in disaster risk reduction are requested, as appropriate, to enhance the coordination of their strategies in this regard;

(b) The entities of the United Nations system, including the funds and programmes and the specialized agencies, through the United Nations Plan of Action on Disaster Risk Reduction for Resilience, United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks and country programmes to promote the optimum use of resources and to support developing countries, at their request, in the implementation of this framework, in coordination with other relevant frameworks, such as the International Health Regulations (2005), including through the development and the strengthening of capacities, and clear and focused programmes that support the priorities of States in a balanced, well-coordinated and sustainable manner, within their respective mandates;

(c) The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), in particular, to support the implementation, follow-up and review of this framework through: preparing periodic reviews on progress, in particular for the Global Platform and, as appropriate, in a timely manner with the follow-up process at the United Nations, supporting the development of coherent global and regional follow-up and indicators and in coordination, as appropriate, with other relevant mechanisms for sustainable development and climate change and updating the existing web-based Hyogo Framework for Action Monitor accordingly; participating actively in the work of the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on Sustainable Development Indicators; generating evidence-based and practical guidance for implementation in close collaboration with States, and through mobilization of experts; reinforcing a culture of prevention in relevant stakeholders, through supporting development of standards by experts and technical organizations, advocacy initiatives, and dissemination of disaster risk information, policies and practices, as well as providing education and training on disaster risk reduction through affiliated organizations; supporting countries, including through the national platforms or their equivalent, in their development of national plans and monitor trends and patterns in disaster risk, loss and impacts; convening the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction and supporting the organization of regional platforms for disaster risk reduction in cooperation with regional organizations; leading the revision of the United Nations Plan of Action on Disaster Risk Reduction for Resilience; facilitating the enhancement of, and continuing to service, the Scientific and Technical Advisory Group of the International Disaster Risk Conference in mobilizing science and technical work on disaster risk reduction; leading, in close coordination with States, the update of 2009 Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction in line with the agreed terminology by States; and maintaining the stakeholders' commitment registry;

(d) International financial institutions, such as the World Bank and regional development banks, to consider the priorities of this framework for providing financial support and loans for integrated disaster risk reduction to developing countries;

(e) Other international organizations and treaty bodies, including the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, international financial institutions at the global and regional levels, and the International Red Cross and the Red Crescent Movement to support developing countries, at their request, in the implementation of this framework, in coordination with other relevant frameworks;

(f) The United Nations Global Compact, as the main United Nations initiative for engagement with the private sector and business, to further engage with and promote the critical importance of disaster risk reduction for sustainable development and resilience;

(g) The overall capacity of the United Nations system to assist developing countries in disaster risk reduction should be strengthened by providing adequate resources through various funding mechanisms, including increased, timely, stable and predictable contributions to the United Nations Trust Fund for Disaster Reduction, and by enhancing the role of the Fund in relation to the implementation of this framework.

(h) The Inter-Parliamentary Union and other relevant regional bodies and mechanisms for parliamentarians, as appropriate, to continue supporting, and advocating for, disaster risk reduction and the strengthening of national legal frameworks;

(i) The United Cities and Local Governments organization and other relevant bodies of local governments to continue supporting cooperation and mutual learning among local governments for disaster risk reduction and the implementation of this framework.

Follow-up actions

49. The Conference invites the General Assembly, at its seventieth session, to consider the possibility of including the review of the global progress in the implementation of this framework for disaster risk reduction as part of its integrated and coordinated follow-up processes to United Nations conferences and summits, aligned with the Economic and Social Council, the High-level Political Forum for Sustainable Development and the quadriennial comprehensive policy review cycles, as appropriate, taking into account the contributions of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction and regional platforms for disaster risk reduction and the Hyogo Framework for Action Monitor.

50. The Conference recommends to the General Assembly the establishment at its sixty-ninth session of an open-ended intergovernmental working group, comprised of experts nominated by Member States, and supported by the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), with involvement of relevant stakeholders, for the development of a set of possible indicators to measure global progress in the implementation of this framework in conjunction with the work of the inter-agency expert group on sustainable development indicators. The conference also recommends that the Working Group considers the recommendations of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Group on the update of the 2009 UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction by December 2016, and that the outcome of its work be submitted to the General Assembly for its consideration and adoption.

{*1* A/CONF.206/6 and Corr.1, chap. I, resolution 2.}

{*2* Resilience is defined as: "The ability of a system, community or society exposed to hazards to resist, absorb, accommodate to and recover from the effects of a hazard in a timely and efficient manner, including through the preservation and restoration of its essential basic structures and functions", United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), "2009 UNISDR Terminology on Disaster Risk Reduction", Geneva, May 2009 (http://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/terminology)..}

{*3* Hazard is defined in the Hyogo Framework for Action as: "A potentially damaging physical event, phenomenon or human activity that may cause the loss of life or injury, property damage, social and economic disruption or environmental degradation. Hazards can include latent conditions that may represent future threats and can have different origins: natural (geological, hydrometeorological and biological) or induced by human processes (environmental degradation and technological hazards)..}

{*4* Vulnerability is defined in the Hyogo Framework for Action as: "The conditions determined by physical, social, economic and environmental factors or processes, which increase the susceptibility of a community to the impact of hazards"..}

{*5* The Hyogo Framework priorities for action 2005-2015 are: (1) ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis for implementation; (2) identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning; (3) use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels; (4) reduce the underlying risk factors; and (5) strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels..}

{*6* The climate change issues mentioned in the present framework remain within the mandate of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change under the competences of the Parties to the Convention..}

{*7* Categories of affected people will be elaborated in the process for post Sendai work decided by the Conference..}

{*8* A/CONF.172/9, chap. I, resolution 1, annex I..}

{*9* General Assembly resolution 69/15, annex.}