"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] The Hague Nuclear Security Summit Communiqué

[Place] Hague, Netherlands
[Date] March 25, 2014
[Source] Nuclear Security Summit Official Homepage
[Full text]

We, the leaders, met in The Hague on 24 and 25 March 2014 to strengthen nuclear security, reduce the continuing threat of nuclear terrorism and assess the progress we have made since the Washington Summit in 2010. In preparing for this Summit we have used the Washington and Seoul Communiqués as the basis for our work and have been guided by the Washington Work Plan.


1. We reaffirm our commitment to our shared goals of nuclear disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation and peaceful use of nuclear energy. We also reaffirm that measures to strengthen nuclear security will not hamper the rights of States to develop and use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.

2. This Summit focuses on strengthening nuclear security and preventing terrorists, criminals and all other unauthorised actors from acquiring nuclear materials that could be used in nuclear weapons, and other radioactive materials that could be used in radiological dispersal devices. Achieving this objective remains one of the most important challenges in the years to come.

3. Our summit in The Hague builds on the Washington and Seoul Summits, and we note with satisfaction that most of the commitments that participants made during previous summits have already been fulfilled. We welcome the considerable progress made in strengthening nuclear security, while recognising that continuous efforts are needed to achieve that goal.

Fundamental responsibility of States

4. We reaffirm the fundamental responsibility of States, in accordance with their respective obligations, to maintain at all times effective security of all nuclear and other radioactive materials, including nuclear materials used in nuclear weapons, and nuclear facilities under their control. This responsibility includes taking appropriate measures to prevent non-state actors from obtaining such materials – or related sensitive information or technology – which could be used for malicious purposes, and to prevent acts of terrorism and sabotage. In this context we emphasise the importance of robust national legislation and regulations on nuclear security.

International cooperation

5. At the same time we emphasise the need to further strengthen and coordinate international cooperation in the field of nuclear security. Much can be done through the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other intergovernmental organisations and initiatives, and through bilateral and regional cooperation.

6. International cooperation fosters the capacity of States to build and sustain a strong nuclear security culture and effectively combat nuclear terrorism or other criminal threats. We encourage States, regulatory bodies, research and technical support organisations, the nuclear industry and other relevant stakeholders, within their respective responsibilities, to build such a security culture and share good practices and lessons learned at national, regional and international level.

7. We support stronger international and regional cooperation with regard to education, awareness raising and training, including through nuclear security centres of excellence and support. We therefore welcome the expansion of nuclear security networks for education, and for training and support, by the IAEA and other international organisations.

Strengthened international nuclear security architecture

8. We recognise the need for a strengthened and comprehensive international nuclear security architecture, consisting of legal instruments, international organisations and initiatives, internationally accepted guidance and good practices.

Legal instruments

9. We encourage States that have not yet done so to become party to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) and to ratify its 2005 amendment. We welcome the new ratifications of the CPPNM amendment since the Seoul Summit. As foreseen in Seoul, we will continue to work towards the entry into force of the 2005 amendment later this year. We stress the need for all contracting parties to comply fully with all its provisions.

10. We underline the importance of the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and stress the need for all contracting Parties to comply fully with all its provisions. We welcome the new ratifications and accessions since the Seoul Summit and encourage all States to become party to this Convention.

11. We welcome efforts aimed at developing model legislation on nuclear security, which could provide States with building blocks to develop comprehensive national legislation in accordance with their own legal systems and internal legal processes.

Role of the International Atomic Energy Agency

12. We reaffirm the essential responsibility and the central role of the IAEA in the international nuclear security architecture. We welcome the increased prominence of nuclear security in the Agency’s work and its leading role in coordinating activities among international organisations and other international initiatives. The International Conference on Nuclear Security: Enhancing Global Efforts of July 2013 demonstrated the IAEA’s ability to enhance political awareness and to address policy, technical and regulatory aspects of nuclear security.

13. We attach great value to the Agency’s support for national efforts to improve nuclear security. Its nuclear security guidance, contained in the IAEA Nuclear Security Series of publications, provides the basis for effective nuclear security measures at national level. We encourage all States to utilise this guidance as appropriate.

14. We welcome the Integrated Nuclear Security Support Plans (INSSP) with which the IAEA assists States in consolidating their nuclear security needs into comprehensive plans. We encourage States to use their INSSPs for making progress in nuclear security, as appropriate.

15. We underline the benefits of IAEA review and advisory services provided through mechanisms such as the International Physical Protection Advisory Service (IPPAS). To date, 62 IPPAS missions have been undertaken in 40 countries. While acknowledging the voluntary nature of these services, we encourage all States to utilise them and share the lessons learned without detriment to the protection of sensitive information.

16. The role of the IAEA will be crucial in the years ahead. Therefore we encourage greater political, technical and financial support for the IAEA, including through its Nuclear Security Fund, to ensure that it has the resources and expertise needed to carry out its mandated nuclear security activities.

Role of the United Nations

17. We welcome the significant contribution made by the United Nations to strengthening nuclear security – particularly in promoting the ratification and effective implementation of international conventions and protocols against terrorism, including nuclear terrorism – as well as the work undertaken by the UN Security Council Committee, established pursuant to resolution 1540. We urge States to fully implement resolution 1540 and subsequent resolutions, and to continue to report such efforts on a regular basis. We also recognise the important contribution of the United Nations to disarmament and non-proliferation.

Role of other international initiatives

18. We recognise the contribution made by the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism (GICNT) and the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction since the 2010 and 2012 Nuclear Security Summits, within their respective mandates and memberships. Both have expanded in membership and have become valuable platforms for coordination and cooperation on nuclear security.

19. We welcome regional initiatives, which play an important role in strengthening nuclear security collaboration within regions while supporting overall nuclear security goals. We welcome continued developments in this area.

Voluntary measures

20. We have identified a range of voluntary measures States may consider taking to show that they have established effective security of their nuclear materials and facilities while protecting sensitive information. Such voluntary measures may include publishing information about national laws, regulations and organisational structures; exchanging good practices; inviting IAEA review and advisory services and other reviews and following up on their conclusions; providing information through relevant existing reporting mechanisms and forums; further developing training of personnel involved in nuclear security by setting up and stimulating participation in training courses and applying domestic certification schemes. We note that many of the States participating in this summit already take such measures, in some cases in a regional context, and are using them to showcase their nuclear security efforts, thereby building national and international confidence in the effectiveness of their nuclear security regimes.

Nuclear material

21. We recognise that highly enriched uranium (HEU) and separated plutonium require special precautions and that it is of great importance that they are appropriately secured, consolidated and accounted for. Over the past four years we have made considerable progress in safe, secure and timely consolidation inside countries and in removal to other countries for disposal. Furthermore, a considerable amount of HEU has been down-blended to low-enriched uranium (LEU) and separated plutonium converted to mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. We encourage States to minimise their stocks of HEU and to keep their stockpile of separated plutonium to the minimum level, both as consistent with national requirements.

22. We encourage States to continue to minimise the use of HEU through the conversion of reactor fuel from HEU to LEU, where technically and economically feasible, and in this regard welcome cooperation on technologies facilitating such conversion. Similarly, we will continue to encourage and support efforts to use non-HEU technologies for the production of radioisotopes, including financial incentives, taking into account the need for an assured and reliable supply of medical isotopes.

Radioactive sources and materials

23. Radioactive sources are used in every country in the world, whether in industry, medicine, agriculture or research. At the same time, high-activity radioactive sources can be used for malicious acts. We have made progress in better protecting sources, inter alia through national registers. Considerably more States have amended their national legislation and regulations, taking into account the guidance in the IAEA Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources and Nuclear Security Series recommendations. We are committed to promoting this guidance, first and foremost through the IAEA. We seek to secure all radioactive sources, consistent with international guidance.

24. We encourage States which have not yet done so to establish appropriate security plans for the management of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste.

Nuclear security and safety

25. We recognise that nuclear security and safety have the common aim of protecting human health, society and the environment. We reaffirm that nuclear safety measures and nuclear security measures need to be designed and managed in a coherent and coordinated manner in the specific areas where nuclear security and nuclear safety overlap. In these areas, efforts to further improve nuclear security might benefit from experience gained with nuclear safety. We emphasise the need to develop a nuclear security culture, with a particular focus on the coordination of safety and security. Sharing good practices, without detriment to the protection of sensitive information, might also be beneficial. The principle of continuous improvement applies to both safety and security. In this regard we acknowledge the IAEA Nuclear Security Guidance Committee and the IAEA Commission on Safety Standards and their activities aimed at properly addressing safety and security interface issues.

26. We reaffirm the need to maintain effective emergency preparedness, response and mitigation capabilities in a manner that addresses both nuclear security and nuclear safety.

Nuclear industry

27. Nuclear operators have the primary responsibility to secure their nuclear material and as such have an important role to play in maintaining and strengthening nuclear security. Operators’ security systems should be effective and place a strong emphasis on an effective security culture, physical protection and material accountancy. This needs to be demonstrated nationally by regular routine tests and evaluations, including performance testing and self-evaluation where appropriate. We take note of the emerging interest in using performance-based regulations where appropriate. We support a more intensive dialogue between operators and government bodies, including the national regulator, which should be functionally independent, with a view to improving nuclear security regulations and regulatory effectiveness.

28. In this regard, we recognise the holding of the Nuclear Industry Summit organised as a side event to this Nuclear Security Summit as a positive engagement by the industry with nuclear security issues.

Information and cyber security

29. We recognise the growing importance of information security, including information held on computer systems, related to nuclear material and technology. Security is essential to preventing unauthorised actors from obtaining information, technology and expertise required for acquiring and using nuclear materials for malicious purposes. In these areas further cooperation between government, industry and academia is desirable. We promote a nuclear security culture that emphasises the need to protect sensitive expertise and information and discourages publication of such information in online media and in public forums.

30. In order to address the growing threat of cyber attacks, including on critical information infrastructure and control systems, and their potential impact on nuclear security, we encourage States and the private sector to take effective risk mitigation measures to ensure that the systems and networks of nuclear facilities are appropriately secured. Unauthorised access to these systems could compromise the safe and secure operation of the facility as well as the confidentiality, integrity and availability of the relevant information.

Nuclear Transportation

31. We reaffirm our determination to further enhance the security of nuclear and other radioactive materials while in domestic and international transport. We acknowledge that sharing good practices and lessons learned, without detriment to the protection of sensitive information, can be useful contributions to this goal. We encourage States, the relevant industries and centres of excellence to be involved in these efforts at both national and international level.

Illicit Trafficking

32. We underline the vital importance of using all tools at our disposal to locate and secure nuclear material out of regulatory control, including effective export control arrangements and law enforcement mechanisms, to regulate nuclear transfers and counter illicit transfers of nuclear material. In this context legislative measures are necessary to enable national prosecutions. We underscore our commitment to sharing information, best practices and expertise, subject to States’ national laws and procedures, through bilateral, regional and multilateral mechanisms in relevant areas such as nuclear detection, forensics, law enforcement, and the development of new technologies to enhance enforcement capacity of customs personnel. We urge States to participate in the IAEA Incident and Trafficking Database and to provide the IAEA with relevant information in a timely manner. In the interest of supporting law enforcement efforts, we encourage States, consistent with their respective national regulations and international obligations, to expand information-sharing, including through INTERPOL and the World Customs Organization (WCO), regarding individuals involved in the illicit trafficking of nuclear or other radioactive materials.

Nuclear Forensics

33. Nuclear forensics is developing into an effective tool for determining the origin of nuclear and other radioactive materials and providing evidence for the prosecution of acts of illicit trafficking and other malicious acts. We welcome the progress and recent development of several instruments that improve the use of traditional forensic methods, and emphasise the need to further develop innovative forensic methods and tools for investigating incidents involving nuclear and other radioactive materials. We encourage further international cooperation, within the IAEA and other relevant international organisations, aimed at connecting and enhancing traditional and nuclear forensics capabilities, where feasible, and establishing national nuclear forensics databases to enable better determination of the origin of material. We welcome the organisation by IAEA of a conference on advances in nuclear forensics in July 2014.

Future of Process

34. Continuous efforts are needed to achieve our common goal of strengthening the international nuclear security architecture and we recognise that this is an ongoing process.

35. Our representatives will therefore continue to participate in different international forums dealing with nuclear security, with the IAEA playing the leading role in their coordination.

36. The United States will host the Nuclear Security Summit in 2016.

The Hague, 25 March 2014