"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo


[Place] Manila, Philippines
[Date] November 14, 2017
[Source] Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
[Full text]

1. The 20th ASEAN Plus Three (APT) Commemorative Summit was held on 14 November 2017 in Manila, Philippines. The Summit was chaired by H.E. Rodrigo Roa Duterte, President of the Republic of the Philippines. The Summit was attended by all Heads of State/Government of the Member States of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the People's Republic of China, Japan and the Republic of Korea. The Secretary General of ASEAN and the Secretary General of the Trilateral Cooperation Secretariat were also in attendance.

2. We noted with satisfaction the progress in APT cooperation over the past 20 years and discussed its future direction. To this effect, we issued the Manila Declaration on the 20th Anniversary of APT Cooperation. We reaffirmed our commitment to further strengthening and deepening the APT process which plays a key role in regional community building efforts with ASEAN as the driving force.

3. We reaffirmed our strong support for ASEAN's central role in the existing regional mechanisms and in the evolving regional architecture. We recognized the mutually reinforcing and complementary roles of the APT process to such regional fora as the East Asia Summit and the ASEAN Regional Forum. We also shared the views that the APT would continue to support the implementation of the ASEAN Community Vision 2025 to pave the way towards deeper regional integration in East Asia.

4. We noted the substantial progress on the implementation of the APT Cooperation Work Plan (2013-2017), and welcomed the adoption by the APT Foreign Ministers of the successor APT Cooperation Work Plan (2018 – 2022) during the 18th APT Foreign Ministers Meeting on 7 August 2017 in Manila.

5. We commended the efforts and work carried out by the CPR Plus Three (CPR+3) Ambassadors' Meeting, sectoral bodies and relevant stakeholders in following up to the selected recommendations of the East Asia Vision Group (EAVG) II, including the vision of realizing an East Asia Economic Community (EAEC) by 2020, with the ASEAN Plus Three as the main vehicle to achieve this goal. We emphasized the significance of the common goal of East Asia Economic Community of the APT and agreed to promote further the building process on the occasion of the 20th Anniversary of the APT. We noted the proposals of China including the development of an East Asia Economic Community blueprint.

6. We acknowledged the importance of the APT in maintaining and enhancing peace, stability and development in the East Asian region. In this context, we shared the view that we would further deepen and strengthen political and security dialogue and cooperation in both traditional and non-traditional security issues as contained in the APT Cooperation Work Plan 2018-2022.

7. We commended the progress of cooperation among the ASEAN Plus Three member countries and the role of the ASEAN Plus Three Cooperation Fund that helps fulfill common effort for mutual benefit. To maintain this positive momentum, we looked forward to the complete replenishment of the ASEAN Plus Three Cooperation Fund in accordance with the Terms of Reference of the APTCF.

8. We emphasized the need to pursue an open trading system for the region that would allow sustainable growth of trade and investments. We welcomed the strong trade and investment relations between ASEAN and the Plus Three Countries. In 2016, total merchandise trade between ASEAN and the Plus Three Countries amounted to USD 694.2 billion or 31 per cent of ASEAN's total merchandise trade. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows from the Plus Three Countries into ASEAN was valued at USD 27.1 billion, accounting for 27.6 per cent of the total FDI inflow to ASEAN.

9. We reaffirmed our commitment to continuing cooperation on economic issues and encouraged closer collaboration on ASEAN's new priorities and projects through the adopted APT Economic Cooperation Work Programme 2017- 2018, covering areas such as connectivity, micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) development, trade facilitation, and e-commerce. The Work Programme reinforces the foundation for enhanced economic relations, through sustained dialogue and consultations and technical cooperation activities between ASEAN and the Plus Three countries.

10. We noted the progress made by our joint efforts in advancing the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) negotiations. In view of the large potential of the RCEP to promote global trade and growth, we urged RCEP Participating Countries to exercise their best endeavor to swiftly and successfully achieve a modern, comprehensive, high-quality and mutually- beneficial RCEP agreement.

11. We recognized the important role of the private sector in enhancing economic cooperation in the East Asian region and noted the efforts made by the East Asia Business Council (EABC) in supporting Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) to capture and maximize the opportunities offered by digital trade, to find new ways of doing business, to facilitate MSMEs' participation, and to participate in stakeholder engagement in the course of RCEP negotiations. We acknowledged the importance of continuous business engagements including through the conduct of relevant research studies. We also welcomed the collaboration among the EABC, ASEAN-China Centre, ASEAN-Japan Centre, and ASEAN-Korea Centre to extend the reach of cooperation in the context of the APT in order to increase trade and investment.

12. In setting long-term goals of regional integration, we noted the proposal to study the next phase of East Asia Vision Group III to include a focus on the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR).

13. We acknowledged the outcomes of the 20th APT Finance Ministers' and Central Bank Governors' Meeting (AFMGM+3) to strengthen regional financial cooperation, through the operationalisation of: the Chiang Mai Initiative Multilateralisation (CMIM) as an essential part of the regional financial safety net; the APT Macroeconomic Research Office (AMRO) as the regional macroeconomic and financial surveillance unit; the Asian Bond Markets Initiative (ABMI) for developing local currency bond markets across the region; and the agreement on the "Yokohama Vision," as guiding principles for a more resilient and integrated APT. We welcomed the deepened engagement with the IMF to further strengthen the global financial safety net, the revision of the CMIM Operational Guidelines to clarify the activation process of the IMF De- linked and Linked Portion of the CMIM. We stressed the importance of continuing to boost economic and financial system resilience as the region seeks to overcome structural challenges and build stronger foundations for growth, while reaffirming our commitment to remain open to international trade and investments and to integrate into the global economy.

14. We looked forward to the development of the APT Tourism Cooperation Work Plan 2018-2020 as the successor to the APT Tourism Cooperation Work Plan 2013-2017 and as a key instrument to translate the Memorandum of Cooperation on APT Tourism Cooperation into action to enhance facilitation of travel and tourist visits, development of quality tourism and strengthening linkages and cooperation among education and training institutions. We welcomed the convening of the ASEAN Plus Three Tourism Youth Summit 2017 co-organised by the Philippines, Japan and Thailand.

15. We adopted the APT Leaders' Statement on Food Security Cooperation and reaffirmed our commitment to work together to ensure food security, food safety, better nutrition and equitable distribution, as well as to promote sustainable development in the region. We look forward to its implementation, including through sharing of know-how and promoting capacity building on food production, and providing scholarships on agriculture.

16. We noted the adoption of the APT Cooperation Strategy on Food, Agriculture and Forestry (APTCS) 2016 – 2025 during the 17th Meeting of the AMAF+3 on 29 September 2017 as a component towards the realization of the ASEAN Community Vision 2025 and to advance APT collaboration in the priority areas of agriculture, fisheries, livestock and forestry sectors. We welcomed the complementarity and progress made under the APT Emergency Rice Reserve (APTERR) and the ASEAN Food Security Information System (AFSIS). Noting that the assurance of food security in APT is the common goal, we encouraged all APTERR Parties to expedite the commencement of the Tier 1 Programme to address the challenge of food availability. In 2016, the implementation of Tier 3 Programme APTERR was completed with the distribution of the total amount of 450 metric tons of rice.

17. We acknowledged the progress of the APT on energy cooperation and appreciated the continued support offered by the Plus Three countries towards the development of energy security. We welcomed the outcome of the 14th APT Ministers on Energy Meeting (AMEM+3) on 28 September 2017, Pasay City, Philippines, which recognized the importance of developing high- quality and resilient energy infrastructure, bearing in mind the lifecycle costs, environmental impacts and safety aspects of projects, including the new initiative, ASEAN+3 Clean Energy Policy Roundtable Dialogue by China as the 4th Forum of the SOME+3 EPGG Work Programme.

18. We noted the continued growth of cooperation on environmental issues, particularly in addressing issues relating to environmental protection and sustainable development. We welcomed the ASEAN-Japan Environmental Cooperation Initiative which aims to advance environmental cooperation in areas including climate change, waste management, biodiversity conservation, chemical pollution management, wastewater management, and quality environmental infrastructure development for sustainable cities, as well as cooperation in SDGs through collaboration with ERIA.

19. We were pleased to note that the implementation of various initiatives of the APT Centre for the Gifted in Science (ACGS) continue to be sustained, with the successful conduct of the 8th APT Student Camp & Teacher Workshop on 15-20 January 2017 in Beijing, the 6th APT Junior Odyssey held in Ha Noi on 10-15 July 2017 and the awarding of the Da Vinci Award and Scholarship on 19 October 2017 in Nay Pyi Taw.

20. We recognized the importance for ASEAN to be better connected in ensuring freer movement of people, goods, services and capital. The ASEAN Leaders appreciated the Plus Three countries' support in the implementation of the Master Plan on ASEAN Connectivity (MPAC) 2025 and welcomed their assistance in enhancing regional connectivity to benefit the East Asian region as a whole. We welcomed the convening of the ASEAN Plus Three Symposium on Promoting Regional Connectivity on 29 September 2017 in Bangkok as an implementation of the EAVG II recommendation No. 1 on "Promote regional connectivity in East Asia" as well as the continued contribution of the ASEAN-Korea Center for its organization of the annual ASEAN Connectivity Forum to facilitate business opportunities and enhance Public-Private Partnerships in connectivity projects and its hosting of the 5th ASEAN Connectivity Forum on 29-30 November 2017 in Seoul.

21. Recognizing the importance of both financing mobilization and quality infrastructure in moving the ASEAN Connectivity agenda forward, we noted the progress of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), Belt and Road Initiative, and the Expanded Partnership for Quality Infrastructure to address infrastructure-financing needs and to promote quality infrastructure investment in the region.

22. We reaffirmed our commitment to advancing the complementarity between the ASEAN Community Vision 2025 and implementation of UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to uplift the living standards of people in ASEAN and the Plus Three countries over the next decades during the course of ASEAN Community building process.

23. We acknowledged the continued APT cooperation on the promotion and protection of cultural heritage as exemplified by the successful implementation of the Workshop on Disaster Risk Management for Cultural Heritage Sites in ASEAN Plus Three Countries on 22-27 October 2017 in Bagan, Myanmar and China's hosting of the 11th ASEAN Plus Three Workshop on Cooperation for Cultural Human Resource Development that will be held on 15-25 November 2017.

24. We noted with satisfaction the completion of the ASEAN Plus Three Plan of Action on Education 2010-2017 and committed to further deepen cooperation on education with the development and launch of a new eight-year plan of action on education in 2018 to complement the ASEAN Work Plan on Education 2016-2020. In pursuing this, we encouraged greater involvement of relevant universities and educational institutions in the APT countries to support education collaboration through technical expertise, networking, and research.

25. We reaffirmed the need to promote student mobility and quality assurance in higher education amongst APT Countries and welcomed the approval of the ASEAN Plus Three Guidelines on Student Exchange and Mobility with the aim of promoting the development of higher education in the APT Countries through greater promotion of student exchanges and mobility supported by quality assurance mechanisms. We also appreciated the efforts and significant outputs of the ASEAN Plus Three Working Group on Mobility and Quality Assurance of Higher Education, and encouraged its expanded role and involvement in the development and implementation of the ASEAN Plus Three Plan of Action on Education 2018-2025.

26. We encouraged all ASEAN Plus Three efforts and cooperation on youth development to find synergy in the five priority areas of the ASEAN Work Plan on Youth 2016-2020 including youth entrepreneurship, youth employability, awareness raising towards appreciation of the ASEAN Community, youth volunteerism and leadership, as well as youth resilience and competencies in advanced technological and managerial skills. We looked forward to the development of city level exchanges between ASEAN Cities of Culture and East Asian Cultural Cities based on "Kyoto Declaration 2017" adopted at the Japan-China-ROK Culture Ministers' Meeting in August.

27. We acknowledged that the ASEAN Plus Three Health Cooperation has been aligned with the Health Priorities of the ASEAN Post 2015 Health Development Agenda for 2016-2020. We also supported the Joint Statement issued during the 7th ASEAN Plus Three Health Ministers Meeting on 7 September 2017 in Brunei Darussalam which underscored the priority areas of collaboration for 2017-2018 on Universal Health Coverage (UHC), Information-Communication-Technology (ICT) for healthcare, prevention and control of non-communicable diseases, enhancing traditional and complementary medicine, promoting active ageing, development of human resources for health, responding to all hazards and emerging health threats and enhancing food safety. We noted other issues prioritised for collaboration such as Antimicrobial Resistance, Ending All Forms of Malnutrition and Disaster Health Management. We looked forward to the progress of regional activities under the ASEAN Plus Three Health Cooperation that will complement bilateral and regional cooperation on aging-related challenges in the ASEAN. We also looked forward to have further discussions on the Asia Health and Wellbeing Initiative (AHWIN) initiated by Japan in cooperation with Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA).

28. We reaffirmed our commitment to continuing cooperation on labor issues and encouraged closer collaboration on ASEAN's new priorities and projects laid out in the ASEAN Labour Ministers' Work Programme 2016-2020, as well as sharing good practices and experiences on employment services and explored ways to further improve service delivery.

29. We were pleased with the implementation of various ASEAN Plus Three initiatives on labour issues, including the successful convening of the ASEAN+3 Belt and Road Conference on Employment Services on 24-26 July 2017 in China; the 14th and 15th ASEAN-Japan High Level Officials Meeting on Caring Societies on 9-11 November 2016 and on 31 October – 2 November 2017 in Japan; and the 7th and 8th Regional Seminar on Industrial Relations on 14-15 September 2016 in Japan and on 8-9 November 2017 in Viet Nam and the 5th ASEAN+3 Human Resources Development Forum on 7-9 November in ROK. We also looked forward to the implementation of the Conference on Sharing Best Practices on Harnessing Industry Involvement in Development of Higher Level Qualifications and Seminar on Migrant Workers' Contribution to an East Asia Economic Community to implement the East Asia Vision Group (EAVG) II recommendations.

30. We recognised the importance of civil service in driving national and regional progress and welcomed the continued ACCSM+3 cooperation to strengthen civil service that is effective, efficient, transparent and accountable. We acknowledged the progress of the implementation of the ACCSM+3 Work Plan 2016-2020 adopted by the 3rd Heads of Civil Service Meeting for the ASEAN Plus Three Cooperation on Civil Service Matters on 17 November 2016 in Manila, Philippines. We noted with satisfaction the completion of the Study Visits for ASEAN Member States on Public Administration and Human Resources Management on 9-15 October 2016 in China and on 28 August – 1 September 2017 in Japan and looked forward to the Study Visit to ROK in 2018. We further welcomed the Workshop on Freer Flow of Workforce Movement in ASEAN Member States held in Thailand from 6-7 July 2017, the Workshop of Talent Management for Senior Executive Services held in Indonesia from 1 to 4 August 2017 and the Workshop on Building ASEAN Civil Service Competency Platform and Performance Management System held in Cambodia from 4 to 7 September 2017. We also welcomed the development of the draft ASEAN Civil Service Talent Management Model and the publication of Book on Productivity and Innovation Focusing on Performance Management in Plus Three Countries.

31. We noted with satisfaction the progress made on social welfare and development cooperation, particularly on promoting active ageing and empowerment of older persons, promoting and protecting the rights and the welfare of persons with disabilities, advancing the welfare of children, and strengthening social protection utilising the SOMSWD+3 platform. We looked forward to continuing our partnership on enhancing social welfare, as guided by the goals embodied in the Strategic Framework on Social Welfare and Development 2016-2020. In particular, we encouraged cooperation on the development of a regional plan of action to implement the Kuala Lumpur Declaration on Ageing: Empowering Older Persons in ASEAN, the implementation of the Regional Plan of Action on the Elimination of Violence Against Children (RPA-EVAC), and Regional Framework and Action Plan to Implement the ASEAN Declaration on Strengthening Social Protection.

32. We noted the progress in our cooperation on rural development and poverty eradication. We looked forward to continuing exchanges and expanding our partnership in areas of mutual interest such as achieving food security and rural development, promoting the resilience of rural communities from the adverse impacts of climate change, disasters, and other shocks, and exploring suitable adaptive measures, including social protection and building human capacities, as guided by the goals reflected in the Framework Action Plan on Rural Development and Poverty Eradication 2016-2020.

33. We shared the view to maximize the potentials of the ASEAN-Japan Centre, the ASEAN-Korea Centre and the ASEAN-China Centre in promoting trade, investment, tourism, education and people-to-people and cultural exchanges between ASEAN and the individual Plus Three countries.

34. We acknowledged the contribution made by Track 1.5 and Track 2 initiatives in promoting rich discussions on a wide range of issues, including the East Asia Forum (EAF), which provides a platform for government, business, academia and think tanks to provide proposals for deepening East Asia regional cooperation. We noted the outcome of the 15th EAF held in Changsha, Hunan, China, on 30 June 2017, with the theme "20 Years of APT Cooperation: Towards the East Asia Economic Community". We also welcomed the contribution of the Network on East Asia Think-tanks (NEAT) and the successful convening of the 26th and 27th NEAT Country Coordinators Meetings (CCM) and the 15th NEAT Annual Conference (AC) under the theme of "ASEAN at 50 and APT at 20: The Role of Track 2 in building an East Asia Community" in Korea. We also noted NEAT Memorandum No.14 submitted for further consideration by relevant officials.

35. We noted that strengthening mutually beneficial cooperation amongst the Plus Three countries and with ASEAN, upholding ASEAN centrality and enhancing ASEAN connectivity, would contribute to peace, stability and prosperity in East Asia. In this regard, the ASEAN Leaders expressed the view that a positive momentum in China-Japan-ROK trilateral cooperation would contribute to the promotion and maintenance of peace, stability and prosperity in the region.

36. We noted that a sustainable framework for multilateral cooperation could contribute to alleviating the tension and fostering peace in East Asia and welcomed the Korean government's efforts to develop such a framework in Northeast Asia. In this regard, we shared the view to further strengthen dialogue and cooperation by utilizing ASEAN-led mechanisms, including the framework of ASEAN Plus Three Ministerial Meeting on Transnational Crime (AMMTC+3) Consultation, in addressing common security issues such as terrorism and violent extremism, transnational crimes and threats, and cyber security, as well as enhance maritime cooperation in accordance with the principles of international law.

37. Serious concern was expressed over the escalation of tensions in the Korean Peninsula, while some condemned the ongoing development of nuclear weapons and ballistic missile technologies by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), which are in contravention of United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolutions and which threaten regional and international peace and stability. In this regard, we strongly urged the DPRK to immediately comply fully with its obligations under all relevant UNSC resolutions. This would be an important step for returning to serious denuclearisation dialogue.

38. We committed to working closely together on the implementation of UNSC resolutions and relevant non-proliferation cooperation. We reaffirmed the importance of peace and security in the region and reiterated support for the complete, verifiable and irreversible denuclearisation of the Korean Peninsula in a peaceful manner. We also emphasized the importance of addressing humanitarian concerns of the international community, including the abductions issue.

39. We expressed support for initiatives to improve inter-Korean relations toward establishing permanent peace in the Korean Peninsula. We also shared the view that the upcoming Pyeongchang Winter Olympic Games could serve as a useful occasion to promote peace and stability in the Korean Peninsula.