"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] Development Cooperation Charter, -Japan's Contributions to the Sustainable Development of a Free and Open World-

[Date] June 9, 2023
[Source] Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
[Notes] Provisional Translation
[Full text]

I. Basic concept

1. Purpose and background of formulation of the Charter

(1) The international community is at a historic turning point and facing compound crises. Global challenges such as climate change and infectious diseases are becoming more serious, and many developing countries are experiencing slowing economic growth and economic disparities within and among countries. At the same time, amid changes in the balance of power and intensifying geopolitical competition, the free and open international order and multilateralism are being seriously challenged, including by actions that unilaterally change the status quo by use of force, and the risk of fragmentation of the international community is becoming more serious. This is a further blow to many developing countries, creating compound crises that is also coupled with energy and food crises, inflation, debt crises, and humanitarian crises. The limits of the idea that globalization and interdependence can lead to peace and development in the international community have now become increasingly apparent.

(2) Discontent among developing countries caused by widening economic disparities and other factors has also caused new tensions domestically as well as in international relations. While many developing countries appear to be seeking to avoid getting involved in geopolitical competition, some seem to be sympathetic to moves that challenge the free and open international order. Thus, as various global risks have direct adverse effects on the entire world, including Japan, building a peaceful, stable, and prosperous international community under a free and open order directly leads to Japan's national interests.

(3) Today, it is more necessary than ever for the international community to cooperate in order to overcome the compound crises by transcending differences in values and conflicts of interest. At a time when prospects are shaken for progress on development challenges through international cooperation, such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Paris Agreement, Japan, as a peace-loving nation and responsible major power, is in a position to lead such international cooperation based on the concept of "human security." Amid the complex interplay of conflict and cooperation in international relations, development cooperation has an exceptionally vital role to play in Japan's diplomatic efforts.

(4) There is an enormous need for development finance. While the rise of emerging donor countries supplements financing needs to a certain degree, there have been cases of assistance that have not led to self-reliant and sustainable growth of developing countries, such as debt issues in some developing countries caused by loans that do not sufficiently consider debt sustainability. In order to help developing countries achieve self-reliant and sustainable growth, the international community as a whole needs to ensure coordinated development cooperation based on transparent and fair rules. In addition, as the inflow of private-sector financing to developing countries has greatly surpassed Official Development Assistance (ODA) and other forms of public funding, and as various actors including private companies, civil society, and international organizations are playing important roles, it has become more important to collaborate with these actors and to make efforts toward mobilizing new funds.

(5) At this historic turning point, the roles that development cooperation should play, as well as development challenges and its methods are also changing. Therefore, in light of the National Security Strategy (approved by the Cabinet Decision on December 16, 2022) formulated in December 2022, the 2015 Development Cooperation Charter is hereby revised to make more effective and strategic use of development cooperation, one of the most important tools of Japan's diplomacy.

(6) This Development Cooperation Charter is structured as follows. First, it presents the objectives of Japan's development cooperation and the basic policies on which Japan's development cooperation stands. Next, the Charter presents the priority policies that development cooperation should address. The Charter then indicates the approach that Japan should take for effective and strategic implementation of development cooperation, the principles for ensuring appropriateness, and the implementation arrangements and foundations.

(7) Furthermore, for the purpose of this Charter, the term "development cooperation" refers to "international cooperation activities that are conducted by the government and its affiliated agencies for the main purpose of development in developing regions," and is treated as a broad concept that includes peacebuilding, governance, promotion of basic human rights, humanitarian assistance, among others. Additionally, ODA's coordination with Other Official Flows (OOF) and Private Flows (PF) will be strengthened to enhance synergies for development.

2. Objectives of development cooperation

(1) Since joining the Colombo Plan in 1954, Japan has consistently conducted development cooperation in pursuit of peace and prosperity of the international community. Japan itself recovered from World War II with support from the international community and achieved rapid economic growth. By utilizing the knowledge, experience, technology, and lessons learned in the process, Japan has strived to help developing countries build a development foundation through its distinctive cooperation, as well as to solve global issues and create an international environment for smooth economic and social activities that transcend national borders. This history over the past 70 years has embodied Japan's stance as a responsible major power, and has led to the strengthening of trust in Japan and Japan's soft power.

(2) In addition, Japan has contributed to the stability and development of developing countries through development cooperation, and has worked to build a peaceful, stable, and prosperous international community. This has also helped to protect the lives and realize the prosperity of Japanese citizens living as members of the international community.

(3) In the current era with its compound crises, Japan cannot cope with various challenges alone. It is also Japan's duty as a responsible major power to cooperate with developing countries and work together to address development challenges and global challenges that are becoming increasingly complex and serious. Furthermore, it is in Japan's own national interest to build a peaceful, stable, and prosperous international community with developing countries under a free and open international order based on the rule of law, thereby persistently building relationships of trust with as many countries as possible.

(4) In light of the above, the objectives of Japan's development cooperation are as follows.

A. To work together with developing countries to address development challenges of those countries and global issues common to all humankind based on equal partnerships, and to contribute even more actively to the formation of a peaceful, stable, and prosperous international community under a free and open international order based on the rule of law.

B. At the same time, while creating a favorable international environment for Japan and the world and maintaining and strengthening foreign relations based on trust, to contribute to the realization of Japan's national interests, such as securing peace and security for Japan and its people and achieving further prosperity through economic growth.

(5) For this, the Government of Japan will be keenly aware of the fact that development cooperation is funded by the taxes paid by the people of Japan and of the effects of development cooperation in achieving the above objectives. The Government will implement development cooperation, one of the most important tools of diplomacy, in a more strategic, effective, and sustainable manner to create a more favorable international environment for the world and for Japan.

Considering and further improving the philosophy and methods that Japan has cultivated over its long history of development cooperation, Japan's development cooperation is guided by the following four basic policies.

3. Basic policies

(1) Contributing to peace and prosperity

Japan's development cooperation, which has helped to solving development challenges in developing countries and global issues common to all humankind through non- military cooperation, is one of the most appropriate international contributions for Japan as a peace-loving nation that sincerely seeks peace and prosperity of the international community. Japan will continue to adhere to this stance and actively contribute to ensuring peace and prosperity of the international community.

(2) Human security in the new era

A. The concept of human security, which promotes building nations and communities that enable each individual to live happily and with dignity, free from fear and want, is fundamental to what Japan should be, that is, to embody the noble ideals and principles of humanity, and is consistent with the values of freedom, democracy, respect for fundamental human rights, and the rule of law. Japan will continue to position human security as a guiding principle that underlies all of its development cooperation.

B. To realize human security in the new era, it remains important to construct strong and resilient countries and communities through "investment in people" and development that leaves no one behind, such as the protection and empowerment of individuals in the fields including health, nutrition and education. Additionally, in this era with compound crises, various issues are becoming more intricately intertwined, and it is essential that diverse actors work together in solidarity to achieve common goals. Japan will set the protection and empowerment of individuals as well as the solidarity of various actors as the pillars of human security in the new era, and will conduct development cooperation making human agency a central focus.

(3) Co-creation of social values through dialogue and cooperation with developing countries

A. Japan's development cooperation aims for self-reliant development through support for self-help efforts by developing countries, with the spirit of working together to persistently create what suits partner countries through dialogue and collaboration based on a field-oriented approach. This spirit and Japan's approach of building reciprocal relationships with developing countries in which both sides learn from each other as equals are good traditions of Japan's development cooperation.

B. In the current era with its compound crises that has an accumulation of new issues yet without clear solutions, it is necessary to jointly create new solutions through dialogue and collaboration, with the partner countries at the core, involving a variety of actors that each brings its strengths under equal partnerships. Japan aims to generate new value through such "co-creation" by leveraging its traditions of supporting self-help efforts, dialogue, and collaboration.

C. In addition, Japan will aim to bring back home the new solutions and social values generated in this way. Through such efforts, by developing human resources who will lead the future generations in Japan and developing countries, Japan will aim to have such co-creation lead to solutions for its own economic and social challenges and to its economic growth on a domestic level.

(4) Leading the dissemination and implementation of international rules and guidelines based on inclusiveness, transparency, and fairness

Japan's development cooperation consistently emphasizes inclusiveness, transparency, and fairness. Rules and guidelines that serve as a common foundation for all parties involved in development cooperation are indispensable for various actors to work together to address complex issues. In order for the international community to coordinate to resolve issues, Japan will lead the dissemination and implementation of rules and guidelines for development cooperation based on inclusiveness, transparency, and fairness, and will develop cooperation based on such rules and guidelines. In this way, Japan will realize cooperation that does not involve debt traps or economic coercion, and that does not undermine the independence and sustainability of developing countries.

II. Priority policies

Japan's development cooperation addresses the following priority policies. In order to implement these priority policies in a strategic, effective, and agile manner while taking note of the inter-relationships among them, Japan will set out separate regional and country-specific development cooperation policies.

1. "Quality growth" in the new era and poverty eradication through such growth

(1) Based on the concept that "Nation building begins with human resource building," Japan has worked to achieve economic growth through the growth of the private sector by fostering human resources in a fine-tuned manner, developing quality infrastructure, and establishing legal systems. In addition, by achieving such "quality growth," Japan has been aiming for a sustainable solution for poverty eradication, the most fundamental development challenge, and the realization of a prosperous society in which all people can live happily and with dignity. "Quality growth" means growth that is inclusive in that the fruits of growth are shared within society as a whole, leaving no one behind. It is also sustainable, with harmony among the economy, society, and the environment across generations, and resilient, meaning that it can withstand and recover from various shocks, including natural disasters and economic crises.

(2) "Quality growth" is becoming increasingly important in this era with compound crises, as shown below.

A. Inclusiveness: Infectious diseases, conflicts, and large-scale disasters have led to an increase in the number of people living in poverty around the world, while some countries experience widening disparities and worsening humanitarian situations. Vulnerable groups such as refugees, internally displaced persons, children, women, and minorities need more support.

B. Sustainability: Sustainability has become essential in addressing issues, such as climate change, the rich global environment including oceans and biodiversity, and stable supplies of energy and food. At the same time, the issue of worsening debt sustainability due to increasing external debt and dependence on certain countries is also becoming a more serious challenge.

C. Resilience: It has become clear that supply chain vulnerabilities can have adverse impacts in diverse fields such as health care, food prices, and industrial production. Increasing the resilience of the free and open international order in economic aspects as well as enhancing the resilience of the domestic economy through economic diversification and other means are a growing challenge. Resilience is also needed against increasingly severe natural disasters.

(3) Based on the above, Japan will advance "quality growth" and poverty eradication through such growth by working to secure the foundation and driving force for economic growth, as well as by cooperating for people-centered development that supports basic human life. In doing so, Japan will strengthen its efforts in the following fields in particular, in light of the changes in development challenges in this era with compound crises.

A. Strengthening socioeconomic autonomy and resilience, including food and energy security: From the perspective of strengthening the socioeconomic autonomy and resilience of developing countries, Japan will promote cooperation to enhance resilience and diversification of supply chains as well as economic diversification, sustainably procure resources, promote and protect technology, improve the investment environment, increase food production, and improve nutrition. In particular, the enhancement of resilience and diversification of supply chains, sustainable development of critical mineral resources, and stable supply and security of food are important not only for the sustainable growth of developing countries, but also for Japan. Japan will actively work to support supplier diversification, human resources development, legal system development, and relevant infrastructure development.

B. Digital: Digital transformation (DX) is directly linked to all development challenges and is the key to achieving "quality growth." Japan will promote Data Free Flow with Trust (DFFT) and work to solve issues through promotion of data utilization and social implementation of digital technologies. At the same time, Japan will address the digital divide and vulnerabilities caused by the development of digital technologies, i.e. cybersecurity.

C. Quality infrastructure: Developing countries still have enormous demand for infrastructure. Japan has strengths related to maritime and aviation safety management, disaster risk reduction and resilience technologies, urban development that contributes to addressing climate change and environmental issues, and safe transportation systems, electricity and energy infrastructure, and water supply. In order to leverage these strengths to solve social issues in partner countries, Japan will promote the development of "quality infrastructure" with transparency, openness, economic efficiency in view of life cycle costs, and debt sustainability, by combining infrastructure development and capacity development such as institutional development, participation in management and maintenance, and connectivity enhancement via human resources development. In doing so, Japan will appropriately support the smooth business operations of private companies.

2. Realization of peaceful, secure, and stable societies, and maintenance and strengthening of a free and open international order based on the rule of law

(1) Realization of peaceful, secure, and stable societies in developing countries as well as maintenance and strengthening of a free and open international order based on the rule of law are prerequisites for achieving "quality growth" in developing countries.

(2) However, in recent years, developing countries have been threatened by the resurgence of peace and stability challenges associated with geopolitical tensions, movements against democratization and the protection of human rights, piracy and terrorism, and other factors. Such threats can instantly bring long years of development efforts to naught. In order to realize "human security," Japan will comprehensively address the various causes of conflict and instability, and will provide seamless support for peacebuilding while paying attention to the Humanitarian-Development-Peace (HDP) Nexus approach. In doing so, Japan will also collaborate with international peace cooperation activities such as UN peacekeeping operations (PKO) as appropriate. In addition, Japan will provide assistance to ensure the security and stability of societies, including for maritime security, such as capacity building of maritime law enforcement agencies, as well as counter-terrorism and anti-piracy measures. Furthermore, to facilitate establishment of the rule of law, realization of good governance, promotion and consolidation of democratization, and respect for fundamental human rights in various countries, Japan will support the development of legal systems, including assistance in drafting laws and regulations, institutional development, and human resources development. Japan will also strengthen its efforts to contribute to the dissemination and implementation of transparent and fair rules for development finance and other fields. Moreover, Japan will provide prompt, effective emergency humanitarian assistance, including disaster relief assistance, in the event of emergencies such as natural disasters.

(3) Additionally, efforts to build a free and open international order based on the rule of law and multilateralism as the common ground of the international community are becoming increasingly important to prevent the fragmentation of the international community, create a larger market, and share the fruits of economic development among many countries. Accordingly, especially under the vision of a Free and Open Indo-Pacific (FOIP), Japan will endeavor to maintain and strengthen a free and open international order based on the rule of law and cooperate with developing countries to enable them to proactively engage in such an international order and enjoy its fruits, unaffected by force or coercion.

3. Leading international efforts to addressing increasingly complex and serious global issues

(1) Trans-border challenges facing all humankind, including infectious diseases and climate change, significantly affect the international community as a whole, causing damage to many people with particularly serious impact likely on vulnerable developing countries and people, such as poor people. The compound crises are impeding the progress on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which set forth issues and goals to be achieved by 2030 by the international community as a whole.

(2) Considering these points, Japan will continue to work to cooperate with vulnerable countries and regions by coordinating both bilateral and multilateral development cooperation in an integrated manner. While doing this, Japan will strengthen comprehensive efforts to solve global challenges by leading international cooperation through such means as accelerating initiatives to achieve the SDGs based on the concept of "human security," including the initiatives below.

A. Climate change and environment: Climate change is a threat to the sustainable development of all countries in the world. In order to align Japan's development cooperation with the goals of the Paris Agreement and to improve the capacity of developing countries to respond to climate change, Japan will promote assistance for both mitigation measures (such as emissions reduction and removals enhancement of greenhouse gases) and adaptation measures (such as avoidance and reduction of damage caused by climate change), and contribute to both addressing the various development challenges of developing countries and promoting measures against climate change. To this end, Japan will further promote the mobilization of private finance and cooperation with international organizations and others to expand the scale of international assistance. In addition, recognizing that conservation of the global environment is our responsibility for the future of the Earth, Japan will also strengthen its efforts to conserve natural environment, such as mainstreaming biodiversity and protection of the marine environment, forests, and water resources.

B. Health: Based on its Global Health Strategy (approved by the Headquarters for

Healthcare Policy of Japan on May 24, 2022), Japan will contribute to developing global health architecture, strengthen prevention, preparedness, and responses for future public health emergencies, and promote more resilient, more equitable, and more sustainable universal health coverage (UHC) through strengthening health systems in developing countries, including the development of human resources for health.

C. Disaster risk reduction: Disaster risk reduction efforts are essential for realizing poverty eradication and sustainable development. Amid concerns over the increasing frequency and severity of disasters due to climate change, Japan will promote cooperation based on the Sendai Framework for Disaster Reduction that leverages Japan's expertise in disaster risk reduction.

D. Education: Education is extremely important as an area of "investment in people," which is essential for promoting "human security." Japan will continue to strongly promote education, considering the perspective of quality education for all, empowerment of women, children and the youth, and ensuring educational opportunities in conflict and disaster situations.

(3) Addressing global challenges requires the cooperation of the international community as a whole, including developed countries, emerging countries, and developing countries, and it is particularly important to set the agenda to be addressed and make rules in the international arena. Japan will contribute more actively to rulemaking in fields such as global health and the environment, and lead discussions on strengthening domestic resources mobilization, expanding the donor community, reforming international development finance institutions, and considering new methods for mobilizing funds. Japan will also actively contribute to international discussions on post-2030 development goals, while cooperating with other countries.

III. Implementation

In order to attain maximum effect in realizing the aforementioned objectives and promoting the priority policies, Japan will implement development cooperation with the following measures.

(1) Solidarity to realize co-creation

In this era with its accumulating and intricately intertwined development challenges for which no one has a clear solution, there is a need for co-creation, in which various actors bring together their strengths under common objectives and cooperate to create solutions through dialogue and collaboration. Japan's development cooperation aims to set development agenda by utilizing Japan's experience, knowledge, and lessons learned. It will also aim to form and utilize development platforms that involve various actors, with developing countries at the core, and to strongly support the solutions created through these platforms by mobilizing diverse resources, including financial ones. In addition, Japan will promote the expansion of a wide range of financial sources for ODA. From this perspective, Japan will strengthen cooperation for solidarity with the following partners.

A. Private companies

Efforts by private companies are playing an increasingly important role in solving development challenges and contributing to sustainable growth in developing countries. The adoption of the SDGs has integrated economic, environmental, and social issues, and thus enabled companies' SDGs initiatives to be linked to their corporate value. This has encouraged many private companies and investors to become more actively involved in addressing development challenges and to promote finance to realize a sustainable society (sustainable finance). In response, the importance of private finance for developing countries has also increased, and the use of private finance with development effects, such as impact investment and ESG investment, has become an international trend. In this light, Japan will continue to promote current efforts of public-private partnership and also advance development cooperation to involve the private sector, including start-ups and SMEs, in development platforms and facilitate them to address challenges in developing countries. Specifically, to promote impact investment, ESG investment, and blended finance in developing countries, Japan will support to build economic infrastructure provide training and study opportunities for private sector human resources, improve business environment including support for building legal systems, propose development models, and strategically utilize public funds, including private-sector investment finance.

B. Public financial institutions, etc.

In light of the growing importance of effectively combining ODA and OOF for the development of developing countries, with the collaboration between ODA finance and organizations which handle OOF to developing countries such as the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), Nippon Export and Investment Insurance (NEXI), Japan Overseas Infrastructure Investment Corporation for Transport & Urban Development (JOIN), Fund Corporation for the Overseas Development of Japan's ICT and Postal Services (JICT), and Japan Organization for Metals and Energy Security (JOGMEC). Japan will enhance synergies by organically combining various schemes of the government and its affiliated agencies, and promote development cooperation in coordination with private funds.

C. Other donors

Japan will strengthen the sharing of knowledge and resources as well as collaboration with other donors, both developed and developing countries that share the common objectives and principles of development cooperation. Japan will also deepen its cooperation to implement and disseminate rules and standards for development cooperation, and to maintain and strengthen a free and open international order based on the rule of law. By promoting multilayered multilateral cooperation, including South-South and triangular cooperation initiatives, Japan will provide developing countries with a variety of options.

D. International, regional and organizations, and Multilateral Development Banks (MDBs)

International organizations have strengths in expertise, impartiality, and access to conflict areas, while regional organizations have strengths in resolutions of issues suited to the region and in transboundary initiatives. By strengthening cooperation with international and regional organizations, Japan aims to cooperate in fields and regions that are difficult to access through bilateral cooperation, create synergistic effects by combining multilateral and bilateral cooperation, and utilize the specialized knowledge and experience of such organizations. In addition, given that international organizations play an important role in agenda-setting and creating international norms, Japan will deepen cooperation through contributions leveraging its experience and knowledge, and strengthen its involvement in decision-making in international organizations by making effective contributions to them and increasing the number of Japanese staff, including senior staff.

Regarding MDBs, Japan will promote discussions on their reform and strengthen cooperation, including co-financing, given the importance of such banks' financial resources and the role they play in creating international norms.

E. Civil society

The presence of civil society, including NGOs, is expanding in humanitarian assistance and other development cooperation around the world through prompt cooperation that is attuned to local needs. Having newly positioned civil society as a strategic partner in Japan's development cooperation, Japan will utilize the expertise of civil society and strive for more effective and sustainable cooperation that is attuned to the needs of populations that are difficult to reach through bilateral assistance between governments. Japan will support the capacity building of its civil society and further strengthen development cooperation implemented through civil society in Japan and abroad by constantly improving its support schemes.

At the same time, with a view to expanding those involved in development cooperation, the Government of Japan will encourage the participation of its people from all walks of life in development cooperation and promote utilization of their expertise in society, and listen to their proposals and views.

F. Local governments, etc.

Much of the experience and expertise of local governments, which are the main providers of basic administrative services, can be applied to developing countries. Therefore, Japan will promote and support the participation of local governments in development cooperation projects. At the same time, while maximizing the use of JICA's domestic offices and Japan Overseas Cooperation Volunteers (JOCV) alumni, Japan will also link the human resources and knowledge fostered through development cooperation to the solution of Japan's own challenges, such as regional revitalization.

G. Universities and research institutions, etc.

By promoting cooperation with universities and research institutions, among others, Japan will not only seek new solutions to development challenges in developing countries, but also strengthen initiatives including promotion of the international brain circulation through exchanges and joint research between students and researchers from developing countries and Japan, enhancement of the scientific and technological capabilities of both sides, and dissemination of Japan's development experience, including modernization and economic development.

H. Human resources with knowledge about and affinity for Japan, people of Japanese descent, etc.

The human resources with knowledge about and affinity for Japan, whom Japan has nurtured through its fine-tuned capacity development, are important human assets that understand Japan's culture and values. In addition, people of Japanese descent and their communities abroad form the foundation of strong ties with Japan and contribute broadly to local communities in each country. By utilizing these assets as well as overseas educational facilities, Japan will further strengthen its multilayered network of human resources based on trust.

(2) Further enhancement of strategic approach

To enhance the strategic approach of Japan's development cooperation, it is important to formulate more focused policy in light of the aforementioned objectives and priority policies, strengthen consistency between the policies and their implementation, and carry out proactive cooperation that leverages Japan's strengths, while utilizing limited resources. From this perspective, Japan will make the following efforts.

A. Strengthening consistency between policies and implementation

(a) For policymaking, Japan will fully recognize that development cooperation is one of the most important tools of foreign policy, which calls for strategic and agile responses to ever-changing international affairs, and determine priority as necessary in promoting the aforementioned objectives and priority policies.

(b) For implementation, the Government of Japan and implementing agencies will work as one. In addition to effectively utilizing the three ODA schemes (grant aid, technical cooperation, and loan assistance (yen loans and private-sector investment finance)), as has been done to date, Japan aims to combine bilateral cooperation and cooperation through international organizations and NGOs in an optimal way through solidarity with various actors via development platforms to maximize development effects. Moreover, Japan will conduct follow-up activities to ensure that its individual programs/projects are widely recognized by the governments and citizens of the partner countries over many years and are properly evaluated after the completion of the programs/projects.

(c) For evaluation and improvement, in light of the importance of evaluation and improvement not only for maximizing effectiveness and efficiency of cooperation but also for ensuring accountability to the public including ODA's contribution to Japan, and taking into account the need to respond in a flexible and timely manner to changing international affairs, Japan will appropriately conduct evaluations using quantitative data as well after setting the results and outcomes of development cooperation at the policy and program/project levels. In addition, the evaluation results will be appropriately fed back to the policymaking process and program/project implementation to improve the quality of the programs/projects and achieve policy objectives.

(d) Japan will ensure strategic consistency in the above PDCA cycle of policymaking, implementation, evaluation, and improvement for development cooperation.

B. Cooperation that takes advantage of Japan's strengths

(a) The human resources, knowledge, quality technical capabilities, and institutions that Japan has built in the course of its democratic economic development while valuing its own traditions are assets for development cooperation. Japan will conduct development cooperation that takes advantage of these strengths.

(b) Japan has been working to develop human resources in a fine-tuned manner by consistently emphasizing "investment in people" to transfer its technologies and expertise through acceptance of foreign students and trainees as well as dispatch of experts, for which developing countries have high expectations. In order to remain developing countries' "country of choice" for study and training, Japan will continue to enhance its study and training programs by offering a systematic approach to learn from Japan's experience useful for those developing countries, and promoting development of human resources in developing countries who become local partners of Japanese companies, including not only officials of government-related organizations but also those in the private sector. Japan will actively work to promote cooperation among people in private-sector from developing countries and Japanese companies and others, so that they can learn from each other, create new value, and utilize their experience of such interaction in their respective economies and societies. Such endeavor will also lead to the prosperity of the next generation.

(c) Japan's advanced technical capabilities and science and technology remain to be a great strength. On the other hand, as emerging and developing countries make a technological catch-up and their needs are diversified, it is more important to implement value-added development cooperation that combines quality cooperation on physical aspects, such as the provision of materials and equipment and facility construction, with cooperation on non-physical aspects, including involvement in operation and maintenance, institution building, and human resources development. In view of this, Japan will not only wait for requests from partner countries, but also strengthen "offer-type" cooperation, which will enable creating and proactively proposing attractive menus that leverage Japan's strengths, while utilizing new social values and solutions created through co-creation, as well as organically combining various schemes such as ODA and OOF to increase synergy.

(d) Furthermore, JOCVs, who live and think together with local people, are a bridge between Japan and developing countries at the grass-roots level. Japan will continue to promote them as Japan's distinctive cooperation.

(3) Fine-tuned system design that meets the objectives

Based on the above, Japan will work constantly for a fine-tuned system design that includes the following.

A. Implementation of flexible and efficient cooperation tailored to development needs

(a) Japan will make constant improvements to systems to ensure effective and efficient cooperation necessary for co-creation in both financial and technical cooperation, including the aforementioned efforts to encourage sustainable finance initiatives by the private sector and to mobilize private-sector finance for development.

(b) There are countries with per capita gross national income above a certain level, that are still caught in the so-called "middle income trap," and countries with special vulnerabilities such as small island countries. For countries with relatively high-income levels, including these countries above, Japan will also strategically utilize necessary cooperation, including grant aid and technical cooperation, according to the actual development needs and fiscal capacity of each country.

(c) Regarding emergency humanitarian assistance, Japan will expedite decision-making process and make greater use of a wide range of non-governmental partners to ensure that assistance will reach those most in need quickly and securely, even in situations where inter-governmental assistance is difficult. In addition, considering international trends, Japan will make quality and flexible funding when necessary, and will promote efforts to increase effectiveness and efficiency of its assistance through cash transfers and other means via international organizations and NGOs where appropriate. Furthermore, Japan will improve JICA's emergency humanitarian assistance schemes and other support methods, including the application of the Law concerning Dispatch of the Japan Disaster Relief Team (Law No.93, 1987), in order to provide agile and visible Japanese support in terms of the deployment of personnel, provision of relief goods and financial assistance. Japan will continue to employ effective and efficient support methods based on international trends.

B. Implementation of prompt cooperation that meets the needs of the times

In light of the need for cooperation to respond to rapidly changing international affairs and cooperation in coordination with fast-moving private investment, Japan will improve the procedures to enable prompt decision-making and implementation of cooperation as needed, while ensuring proper execution.

2. Implementation principles for ensuring the appropriateness of development cooperation

From the perspective of ensuring the appropriateness of development cooperation, Japan's development cooperation will be provided in accordance with the principles described below, and by comprehensively taking into account partner countries' development needs and socio-economic conditions, as well as Japan's bilateral relations with each country.

(1) Situation regarding consolidation of democratization, the rule of law and the protection of basic human rights

Japan will pay adequate attention to the situation in the recipient countries regarding the process of democratization, the rule of law and the protection of basic human rights, with a view to promoting the consolidation of democratization, the rule of law and the respect for basic human rights.

(2) Avoidance of any use of development cooperation for military purposes or for aggravation of international conflicts

Japan will avoid any use of development cooperation for military purposes or for aggravation of international conflicts. In case the armed forces or members of the armed forces in recipient countries are involved in development cooperation for non-military purposes such as public welfare or disaster-relief purposes, such cases will be considered on a case-by-case basis in light of their substantive relevance.

(3) Situation regarding military expenditures, development and production of weapons of mass destruction and missiles, export and import of arms, etc.

Japan will pay close attention to the situation in recipient countries regarding military expenditures, development and production of weapons of mass destruction and missiles, and export and import of arms, etc. This is done with a view to maintaining and strengthening international peace and stability including the prevention of terrorism and the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, and based on the position that developing countries should allocate their resources appropriately and preferentially for their own socio-economic development.

(4) Impact of development on the environment and climate change

In order to make development compatible with the environment and to achieve sustainable development, including the promotion of decarbonization, Japan will give thorough consideration to the impact of development on the environment and climate change.

(5) Debt sustainability

To make socio-economic development of developing countries sustainable in the medium and long term, Japan will thoroughly consider the sustainability of their debt and implement development cooperation to strengthen it.

(6) Promotion of inclusive societies, including gender mainstreaming, and ensuring fairness

Japan will promote gender equality and women's empowerment through gender mainstreaming at all stages of development cooperation. At the same time, Japan will implement development cooperation with thorough consideration for ensuring fairness to promote diverse and inclusive societies where all people including children, persons with disabilities, the elderly, ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples, and other socially vulnerable groups, can participate in and benefit from development.

(7) Preventing fraud and corruption

It is necessary to prevent fraud and corruption in implementing development cooperation. While taking measures to encourage establishment of a compliance system by bid winners, Japan will work with recipient countries to create an environment conducive to preventing fraud and corruption, including the strengthening of governance in these countries. In this context, Japan will ensure adherence to appropriate procedures and strive to ensure transparency in the project implementation process.

(8) Security and safety of development cooperation personnel

In order to ensure security and safety of development cooperation personnel, Japan will pay adequate attention to strengthening security and safety management capacity, gathering security information, taking security measures, and ensuring safety of workers in construction sites. Particularly in relation to cooperation in areas where political and security conditions are unstable such as for peacebuilding, Japan will implement sufficient security measures and arrangements on a regular basis. In the event of an emergency, Japan will make all efforts to ensure the safety of all those concerned, including for their rapid evacuation and emergency assistance activities in the affected areas.

3. Reinforcement of implementation architecture and foundation

Being mindful of the internationally-agreed target of increasing ODA to 0.7% of gross national income (GNI) and fully recognizing Japan's extremely severe fiscal situation, Japan will expand its ODA in various ways and make necessary efforts to enhance the foundation for the implementation of development cooperation based on 1. and 2. above. At the same time, as the division of roles between the public and private sectors in development cooperation is changing, Japan will pursue more effective development cooperation with various development cooperation partners by promoting the mobilization of private-sector finance, including strengthening collaboration with the private sector and government agencies handling OOF.

(1) Implementation architecture

In implementing its development cooperation, Japan will improve collaboration among the relevant ministries and agencies, with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs serving as a hub in charge of coordinating the planning of development cooperation policies. In addition, the Government of Japan, including the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, will present policies, and implementing agencies such as JICA will implement projects in line with those policies, thereby further strengthening consistency between policies and implementation. In particular, collaboration between diplomatic missions and JICA offices abroad will be promoted. Further efforts will be made to improve the respective capacities, foundations, and institutions of the Government and implementing agencies.

(2) Human and intellectual foundation

A. Japan will continue to strengthen the personnel structure of the Government and implementing agencies involved in development cooperation. In particular, Japan will make efforts with industry-government-academia collaboration to secure and foster human resources with advanced knowledge in new development challenges such as DX, green transformation (GX), public finance, and private-finance mobilization.

Moreover, in these fields, Japan will also promote "international brain circulation" with developing countries and feedback of the outcome of such cooperation back to Japan. Japan will promote the development of international human resources with specialized expertise, including consultants, those at universities and research institutions, private companies, and civil society, in addition to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and JICA, and strive to expand opportunities and develop systems and structures for such human resources to play active roles in Japan and abroad.

B. In addition, to lead international discussions such as on rulemaking for development cooperation, Japan will strengthen its intellectual foundation by promoting policy research and networking between Japan and partners such as universities and research institutes in Japan and abroad.

(3) Social foundation (including information disclosure, overseas public relations, and education on development cooperation)

A. The public's understanding and support are essential to implement development cooperation. In cooperation with local governments and JOCV, and utilizing JICA domestic offices, the Government of Japan will provide clear and careful explanations about the significance and outcomes of development cooperation as well as appreciation from the international community to the wider public. At the same time, Japan will disclose information on the implementation status and evaluation of development cooperation to the public widely, promptly, and with sufficient transparency. Japan will also actively engage in public relations abroad to make Japan's development cooperation and its achievements better known and understood by the international community including developing countries.

B. Japan will promote education on development cooperation through school and social education. People's daily lives and economic activities are based on interdependence with the international community, including developing countries. Through education on development cooperation, Japan will nurture the ability of people of all ages to think and act actively on various development challenges with a sense of ownership.

4. Reporting on the status of the implementation of the Development Cooperation Charter

The Government of Japan will report the status of the implementation of the Development Cooperation Charter in the "White Paper on Development Cooperation," which is reported annually to the Cabinet.