"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] Singapore Declaration on Climate Change, Energy and the Environment

[Place] Singapore
[Date] November 21, 2007
[Source] ASEAN Secretariat
[Full text]

WE, the Heads of State and Government of the Member Countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Australia, People's Republic of China, Republic of India, Japan, Republic of Korea and New Zealand, on the occasion of the Third East Asia Summit (EAS) in Singapore on 21 November 2007;

Welcoming the regional commitment demonstrated in the Cebu Declaration on East Asian Energy Security adopted on 15 January 2007, the APEC Leaders' Declaration on Climate Change, Energy Security and Clean Development adopted in Sydney on 8 September 2007, the ASEAN Declaration on Environmental Sustainability and the ASEAN Declaration on the 13th Session of the Conference of Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 3rd Conference of Parties Serving as the Meeting of the Parties (CMP) to the Kyoto Protocol adopted in Singapore on 20 November 2007;

Affirming our commitment to the UNFCCC as the core mechanism for addressing climate change at the global level, and for relevant countries, the Kyoto Protocol as well;

Welcoming the Fourth Assessment Report of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC);

Concerned about the adverse impact of climate change on socio-economic development, health and the environment, particularly in developing countries and thus emphasising the need to enhance their adaptive capacities, as well as for the international community to urgently act to address the growth of global greenhouse gas emissions;

Recognising that rapid economic development, while contributing to sustainable development and poverty eradication in the region, poses new challenges in dealing with greater energy consumption, regional and global energy security concerns; and that growing urbanisation increases the need for environmental management, given the projected doubling of Asia's 1.7 billion urban population between 2000 and 2030;

Reaffirming the need to take an effective approach to the interrelated challenges of climate change, energy security and other environmental and health issues, in the context of sustainable development and that the pursuit of climate change and energy security policies must avoid introducing barriers to trade, investment and socio-economic development;

Cognisant that EAS participating countries are at different stages of economic development and that our economies have varying and in many cases, heavy dependence on fossil fuels, any actions to tackle global environmental issues should take into account diverse national and regional circumstances in accordance with the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, as well as our respective capabilities;

Appreciating the efforts of various East Asia Summit participating countries, including Australia, China, India, Indonesia, New Zealand, Japan and the ROK, which have contributed to the global debate to address climate change; and

Emphasising the important role that the EAS can play in carrying out collective action to address these challenges for mutual benefit and the common good;


1. Stress that all countries should play a role in addressing the common challenge of climate change, based on the principles of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities; and that developed countries should continue to play a leading role in this regard;

2. Commit to the common goal of stabilising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations in the long run, at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system;

3. Support the work to achieve a common understanding on a long-term aspirational global emissions reduction goal to pave the way for a more effective post-2012 international arrangement;

4. Acknowledge that adaptation is a critical issue for the region and as such, emphasis has to be put on both mitigation as well as adaptation measures, and recognize that sustainable development facilitates adaptation;

5. Carry out individual and collective actions, in a broad range of sectors, to address climate change, including greenhouse gas emissions, considering the principles of equity, flexibility, effectiveness, and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, as well as reflecting our different social and economic conditions;

6. Participate actively in the process of developing an effective, comprehensive, and equitable post-2012 international climate change arrangement under the UNFCCC process; and in this context, reiterate our support for the successful outcome of the 13th session of the COP to the UNFCCC and the 3rd MOP to the Kyoto Protocol to be held in Bali, Indonesia in December 2007;

7. Deepen our understanding of the region's vulnerability to climate change and implement appropriate mitigation and adaptation measures, including through:

Mobilising financial support and cooperating to build capacity for the developing countries in the EAS region;

Encourage the deployment of clean technology in the region through various means, such as investment, technical and financial assistance, and technology transfer ;

Exchanging of scientific and technical expertise in partnership with international experts, and enhancing cooperation towards joint research and development of appropriate adaptation measures to minimize the impact of climate change;

Commissioning of national and where appropriate, joint studies to assess the impact of climate change and environmental protection efforts within the region;

Promoting public awareness of the impacts of climate change and enhancing participation in efforts to mitigate the effects of climate change; and

Supporting the development and expansion of policy and measures, including innovative instruments and financing mechanisms for environmental management, to promote sustainable patterns of consumption and production.

8. Intensify ongoing cooperation to improve energy efficiency, and the use of cleaner energy, including the use of, renewable and alternative sources, based on the Cebu Declaration and the Joint Ministerial Statement of the 1st EAS Energy Ministers' Meeting on 23 August 2007 by:

Working towards achieving a significant reduction in energy intensity;

Implementing the measures recommended by the EAS Energy Ministers, including formulation of voluntary energy efficiency goals by 2009, supporting cooperation in developing reference benchmarks for environmentally and socially-sustainable biofuels and energy market integration; and utilising, where appropriate, regional research bodies, where appropriate, such as the ASEAN Centre for Energy (ACE) and the Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA);

Encouraging research, development, deployment and dissemination of technologies to enhance energy efficiency and conservation in key economic sectors, including buildings, industrial equipment and processes, vehicles and appliances;

Enhancing regional cooperation to develop cost effective carbon mitigation technologies, cleaner fossil fuel technologies including clean use of coal, and to produce environmentally-friendly and sustainable biofuels; and

Cooperating for the development and use of civilian nuclear power, in a manner ensuring nuclear safety, security and non-proliferation, in particular its safeguards, within the framework of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), for those EAS participating countries which are interested.

9. Promote cooperation on afforestation and reforestation, and to reduce deforestation, forest degradation and forest fires, including by promoting sustainable forest management, combating illegal logging, protecting biodiversity, and addressing the underlying economic and social drivers, through, among others:

Encouraging environmentally sustainable planning and management of the region's forests, while strengthening forest law enforcement and governance to combat illegal logging and other harmful practices;

Work to achieve an EAS-wide aspirational goal of increasing cumulative forest cover in the region by at least 15 million hectares of all types of forests by 2020;

Renewing support for global and regional avoided deforestation, afforestation and reforestation efforts such as reforestation funds and, as appropriate, debt-for-nature swap arrangements;

Continued support for UNFCCC work to stimulate action to reduce emissions from deforestation in developing countries, including through appropriate international incentives and assistance; and

Expressing appreciation for regional forest initiatives such as the ASEAN Peatland Management Initiative; the "Heart of Borneo" conservation plan, the Asia Forest Partnership and the Asia-Pacific Network for Sustainable Forest Management and Rehabilitation, as well as global efforts such as the Global Initiative on Forests and Climate, and Indonesia's Forestry Eleven Forum initiative.

10. Continuing support for the implementation of United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) at regional and global levels;

11. Promote co-benefit approaches, which addresses global environmental challenges through taking measures for national development concerns, including preventing environmental degradation;

12. Strengthen cooperation on management capacity and measures for natural disaster risks raised by climate variability and change and other environmental challenges;

13. Encourage the development of adaptation strategies to mitigate weather-related calamities caused by water;

14. Foster the conservation and sustainable management of coastal and marine ecosystems and call on the regional and international communities to participate in efforts to avoid marine pollution, such as marine litter, and the destruction of protected and vulnerable areas such as coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, wetlands and seamounts, and welcome the "Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries, and Food Security" as one of these efforts;

15. Enhance access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation and promote integrated water resource management through initiatives such as the 1st Asia-Pacific Water Summit in December 2007, the Singapore International Water Week in June 2008, the International Yellow River Forum and the International Year of Sanitation 2008;

16. Encourage the well-coordinated and sustainable national management of mineral resources and promote environmentally-sound and efficient mining practices;

17. Promote environmental education to enhance human resource capabilities to address the challenges of ensuring sustainable development in EAS participating countries;

18. Address the environmental challenges posed by rapidly growing urbanisation in the region, by, among other measures:

Pooling our experiences, expertise and technology in areas such as urban planning including transportation, green building, water management, urban greenery and urban biodiversity conservation, sanitation and waste management, 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) and air, noise, water, and land pollution control;

Appreciating initiatives such as "Low Carbon Society", "Compact Cities", "Eco-Cities" and "Environmentally Sustainable Transport"; and

Welcoming Singapore's proposal to convene an EAS Conference on Liveable Cities in June 2008 to address the interrelated issues of urbanisation, climate change, energy, and the environment.

19. Task our relevant Ministers to follow up and act on our discussions on this Declaration, and in this regard:

Commend the work of the inaugural EAS Energy Ministers' Meeting in Singapore on 23 August 2007, and welcome Thailand's offer to host the 2nd EAS Energy Ministers' meeting in 2008; and

Welcome Viet Nam's proposal to host the inaugural EAS Environment Ministers' Meeting in the fourth quarter of 2008.

Done in Singapore, this Twenty-First Day of November in the year Two Thousand and Seven.

For Brunei Darussalam:


Sultan of Brunei Darussalam

For the Kingdom of Cambodia:


Prime Minister

For the Republic of Indonesia:



For the Lao People's Democratic Republic:


Prime Minister

For Malaysia:


Prime Minister

For the Union of Myanmar:


Prime Minister

For the Republic of the Philippines:



For the Republic of Singapore:


Prime Minister

For the Kingdom of Thailand:


Prime Minister

For the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam:


Prime Minister

For Australia:


Prime Minister

For the People's Republic of China:



For the Republic of India:


Prime Minister

For Japan:


Prime Minister

For the Republic of Korea:



For New Zealand:


Prime Minister