"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo


[Place] Manila, Philippines
[Date] November 14, 2017
[Source] Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
[Notes] FINAL
[Full text]

1. The 12th East Asia Summit (EAS) was held on 14 November 2017 in Manila, Philippines. The Summit was chaired by H.E. Rodrigo Roa Duterte, President of the Republic of the Philippines. The Summit was attended by the Heads of State/Government of ASEAN Member States, Australia, the People's Republic of China, the Republic of India, Japan, New Zealand, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, and the United States of America. The Secretary-General of ASEAN was also in attendance.

2. We reaffirmed our commitment to the 2005 Kuala Lumpur Declaration on the Establishment of the East Asia Summit, the 2010 Ha Noi Declaration on the Commemoration of the 5th Anniversary of the East Asia Summit, the 2011 Declaration of the East Asia Summit on the Principles for Mutually Beneficial Relations, and the 2015 Kuala Lumpur Declaration on the 10th Anniversary of the EAS, which emphasized the important role of the East Asia Summit as a Leaders-led forum to discuss broad strategic, political, security and economic issues of common interest and concern with the aim of promoting peace, stability, and economic prosperity in East Asia.

3. We reiterated our support for the ASEAN Community building process and reaffirmed ASEAN's central role in the EAS, and ASEAN's commitment to work in close partnership with all EAS participating countries to ensure that the EAS would continue to be an integral component of the evolving regional architecture, through ASEAN-led processes. We reaffirmed that the East Asia Summit would continue to be an open, transparent, and outward-looking forum that will strengthen international order based on international law, such as the UN Charter, with ASEAN as the driving force. We emphasized the importance of the rule of law in international relations.

4. We were pleased with the progress in the implementation of the decisions made at the 10th East Asia Summit, especially on initiatives to strengthen the East Asia Summit and its work processes. We noted, with appreciation, the important role that the EAS Ambassadors in Jakarta have played in strengthening the EAS, including discussing the implementation of Leaders' decisions and undertaking other activities as provided in the 2015 Kuala Lumpur Declaration on the 10th Anniversary of the East Asia Summit and in accordance with EAS procedures.

5. We noted the recommendations of the 6th EAS Workshop on Regional Security Architecture, which was held on 15-16 May 2017 in Bangkok, Thailand to deliberate on the strengthening of current ASEAN-centered regional security architecture, comprising existing ASEAN-led platforms, in particular the EAS. Given that the EAS is an integral component of the evolving regional architecture with ASEAN as a driving force, we looked forward to continuing discussions on the matter on a platform comprising of EAS Ambassadors in Jakarta and similarly-ranked officials from capitals.

6. We underscored that East Asia is one of the world's most dynamic economic region, with its 18 member countries representing collectively 55% of the world's population and accounting for around 55% of global gross domestic product (GDP). The East Asia Summit, which started as a vision of community-building, has become an effective platform to discuss issues of common interest and importance to global peace, stability and prosperity.

Priority Areas of Cooperation

7. We welcomed the progress made in implementing the Plan of Action (POA) to implement the Phnom Penh Declaration on the East Asia Summit Development Initiative (2015-2017). We looked forward to the completion by 2017 of the Manila Plan of Action (POA) to implement the Phnom Penh Declaration on the EAS Development Initiative with the inclusion of maritime cooperation into the Manila POA as a new area of cooperation under the EAS.


8. We reaffirmed the importance of continued efforts towards improved energy access and energy affordability in order to address regional energy security and sustainability challenges, as well as promote high-quality infrastructure and keeping energy markets transparent and competitive. In this regard, we underscored the importance of the promotion of clean energy, such as renewable energy, clean coal technology, energy efficiency and cleaner and more efficient fossil fuels including enhancing the use of natural gas as a low-emission fuel. We also welcomed the conduct of the 3rd East Asia Summit Clean Energy Forum and the 3rd EAS New Energy Forum hosted by China on 3-4 July and 1-2 November 2017, and the Bohol Reflections prepared by the Philippines, Brunei Darussalam and the Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA) as an outcome of the 1st East Asia Energy Forum in the Philippines on 21 August 2017.

9. We recognized that the EAS region is experiencing the highest growths in energy demand and noted the broad range of energy resources and clean energy technologies capable of contributing to the region's economic growth, energy security and environment protection. We acknowledged the continued role of fossil fuels in the region and underscored the importance of enhanced use of natural gas and clean coal technologies and noted the need to develop liquid, transparent and secure LNG market and its enabling conditions. We underlined the crucial importance of robust research underpinning regional policy discussion and formulation, and welcomed the adoption of a new EAS Mid-Term Energy Policy Research Roadmap.


10. We affirmed our support to the ASEAN vision of an inclusive education and lifelong learning that promotes ASEAN Community and works towards sustainable development in the region. We expressed support to the importance of education for social and economic growth and the need to strengthen public-private partnership for education.

11. We recognized human resource development through technical and vocational education and training as a strategic mechanism towards developing a productive, competitive, and highly mobile workforce that would benefit from and similarly deal with the challenges brought about by the technological shifts and deeper regional integration affecting the employment landscape.


12. We reiterated the importance of financial stability and sound policies in supporting economic growth by consistently managing risks and vulnerabilities. In this regard, we supported the further strengthening of the region's resilience to external shocks through enhancing macro-economic and financial surveillance and strengthening regional financial cooperation and closer collaboration with international financial institutions. We further noted the important efforts made to enhance and support SME financial support system.

Global Health including Pandemics

13. We reaffirmed our commitment to the goal of an Asia-Pacific free of malaria by 2030, and welcomed ongoing efforts to implement proposed actions in the Asia Pacific Leaders' Malaria Elimination Roadmap, including the Flagship ASEAN-India Programme for Combating Malaria. We were pleased with the implementation of the Regional Artemisinin-resistant malaria Initiative (RAI) amongst the ASEAN Member States in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) together with southern China, in cooperation with other stakeholders such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS).

14. We expressed support for full implementation of the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) and related core capacities, and improved monitoring and evaluation of the IHR (2005), to protect and ensure the health, prosperity and well- being of our region and nation states.

15. We noted the hosting by the Russian Federation of the EAS Senior Officials and Experts Meeting on Communicable Diseases Control and Prevention in Moscow, Russian Federation, on 7-8 November 2017, in line with the initiative proposed at the 11th EAS and relevant agreements of the 10th EAS on strengthening cooperation in responding to the threats of the spread of communicable diseases, and noted the proposal to consider the possibility of organizing a meeting of heads of services responsible for combating communicable diseases in 2018.

16. We reaffirmed the importance of promoting sustainable and resilient health systems and the global achievement of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals, including universal health coverage and healthy aging society. We recognized that public health challenges caused by infectious diseases and emerging threats including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) can potentially result to greater lives lost as well as higher socio-economic costs if left unaddressed. In this regard, we note the development of the ASEAN Post 2015 Health Development Agenda Health Cluster 2 Work Programme for 2016-2020 to cover, among others, communicable diseases, neglected tropical diseases and emerging diseases, including health security and pandemic preparedness and response.

17. We took note of key initiatives to address public health emergencies including health security threats and pandemic threats through the establishment of an ASEAN- Emergency Operation Centre (EOC) Network and managing big data analytics for risk assessment and evidence-based policy support.

Environment and Disaster Management

18. We welcomed the convening of the East Asia Summit (EAS) Conference on Combating Marine Plastic Debris held in Bali, Indonesia on 6-7 September 2017, co- chaired by Indonesia and New Zealand. We noted that the Conference discussed and considered recommendations to support and catalyze further efforts to address marine plastic debris for the region, through proposed elements, namely: (i) reduce marine debris from the land to sea; (ii) reduce plastics production and use; (iii) promote campaign, research and education on marine debris; (iv) enhance policy reform and regulatory enforcement; and (v) strengthen regional and international cooperation and coordination. We welcomed the initiative by China to hold the EAS Workshop on Marine Micro Plastic in 2018.

19. We noted the key recommendations from the 8th East Asia Summit High Level Seminar on Sustainable Cities (EAS HLS-SC) held on 8-9 February 2017, Chiangrai, Thailand, with the theme The Role of Cities: Localizing the SDGs to Bridge Policy and Implementation, which continued to support the implementation of the ASEAN ESC Model Cities Programme and served as an annual platform for networking, knowledge exchange and highlighting outstanding frontrunner cities.

20. We looked forward to the Mangrove Tree Planting Day by the EAS Ambassadors in Jakarta, which will be held on 20 November 2017 at Angke Kapuk Mangrove Ecotourism Park, North Jakarta, Indonesia, as an example of EAS' commitment to the global environmental agenda, through the protection, conservation, and sustainable management of biodiversity and natural resources in line with the ASEAN Vision 2025 and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

21. We expressed concern over the adverse impact of climate change to the economic, social and environmental dimensions of all countries. We reaffirmed our commitment to the effective implementation of the Paris Climate Agreement and affirmed our intentions to implement the EAS participating countries' nationally determined contributions. We looked forward to a successful COP-23, where governments will convene to discuss issues related to the implementation of the Paris Agreement.

22. We reaffirmed our commitment to further enhance cooperation in disaster management and joint emergency response in collaboration with the ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM) including through the ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on disaster management (AHA Centre). We welcomed the conduct of the EAS Conference on Disaster Risk Management and Regional Cooperation on 2nd November, 2016 in India, the International Table-Top Exercise (TTX) to test the EAS Rapid Disaster Response Toolkit, on 15-17 November 2016, in partnership with Australia and supported by the United States, and the 6th EAS Joint Exercise of Earthquake Emergency Response held on 11-13 September 2017 in Malaysia by the International Search and Rescue Advisory Group (INSARAG), with the support of China and the US, and looked forward to the 7th Exercise in 2018.

23. We welcomed efforts to further the implementation of the 2011 EAS Disaster Management Initiative. We also welcomed the initiative and leadership of Australia and Indonesia to convene an EAS International Disaster Assistance Workshop in 2018 to explore the application of the EAS Rapid Disaster Response Toolkit and the "One ASEAN, One Response" mechanism for ASEAN to jointly respond to disasters outside the ASEAN region.

ASEAN Connectivity

24. We are pleased with the efforts to strengthen the implementation arrangements for the Master Plan on ASEAN Connectivity (MPAC) 2025. In this regard, we welcomed the adoption of the respective Terms of Reference (TORs) for the ASEAN Connectivity Coordinating Committee (ACCC), National Coordinators, National Focal Points and Lead Implementing Body for Sustainable Infrastructure during the 19th ASEAN Coordinating Council Meeting on 28 April 2017. We noted the progress in the development of the respective project concepts and proposals for the implementation of the MPAC 2025. We welcomed the outcomes of the Forum on MPAC 2025 Initiatives and Project Concepts and the 8th ASEAN Connectivity Symposium with the theme "Harnessing Opportunities and Addressing Challenges in the Implementation of the MPAC 2025", which were held on 12-14 July 2017 in Manila, Philippines, and with support from Australia and ERIA. We attached importance to promoting greater synergies amongst the various connectivity strategies in the region.

25. We underscored the importance of promoting infrastructure development in East Asia to facilitate trade, investment and service competitiveness in the region and acknowledged that the mobilization of means of implementation of infrastructure projects is critical.

Other Areas

26. We note the important role of the AHA Centre in operationalizing the "One ASEAN One Response" Declaration and its prompt response in the delivery of relief items for the Northern Viet Nam flash flood and landslides victims and the displaced communities in Marawi City, the Philippines.

27. With regard to role of the AHA Centre and the Northern Rakhine State in Myanmar, a number of Leaders expressed support to Myanmar's humanitarian relief programme and welcomed the launch of the Myanmar Government-led mechanism in cooperation with the Red Cross Movement and the assistance from the international community in these endeavours. They underscored the importance of increased humanitarian access to the affected areas and that assistance be given to all affected communities. They further urged Myanmar to continue to implement the recommendations of the final report of the Advisory Commission on Rakhine State and welcomed Myanmar's establishment of a Ministerial Committee for this purpose. They welcomed the commitment by Myanmar authorities to ensure the safety of civilians, take immediate steps to end the violence in Rakhine, restore normal socio-economic conditions, and address the refugee problem through verification process. They expressed support to the Myanmar Government in its efforts to bring peace, stability, rule of law and to promote harmony and reconciliation between the various communities, as well as sustainable and equitable development in Rakhine State.

Maritime Cooperation

28. We welcomed the inclusion of maritime cooperation as a new area of cooperation under the EAS, and looked forward to practical and comprehensive action lines in the Manila POA to promote this area of cooperation. We encouraged activities to implement the 2015 EAS Statement on Enhancing Regional Maritime Cooperation through ASEAN led-mechanism. We also welcomed the conduct of the EAS Maritime Security Cooperation Seminar co-chaired by Indonesia and Australia on 23-25 November 2016 in Sydney, Australia; and the 2nd EAS Conference on Maritime Security and Cooperation held on 4-5 November 2016 in Goa, India, and looked forward to the convening of the EAS Workshop on Maritime Search and Rescue and the EAS Workshop on Maritime Management in 2018 in China.

29. We look forward to the convening of 7th ASEAN Maritime Forum (AMF), back- to-back with the 5th Expanded ASEAN Maritime Forum (EAMF) on 6-7 December 2017 in Bali, Indonesia.

Disarmament and Non-Proliferation

30. We welcomed ASEAN's commitment to preserving Southeast Asia as a Nuclear Weapon Free Zone and the contribution of the Southeast Asia Nuclear Weapon Free Zone (SEANFWZ) Treaty to regional security and the global non- proliferation regime. We noted that the Parties to the SEANFWZ Treaty will continue to engage the Nuclear Weapon States to resolve all outstanding issues in accordance with the objectives and principles of the SEANFWZ Treaty.

31. We reaffirmed our commitment to our shared goals of nuclear disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy. We noted the of the EAS Seminar on Non-Proliferation in the Indo-Pacific hosted by Thailand and Australia in Melbourne, Australia, on 16-17 October 2017, in line with the EAS Statement on Non-Proliferation adopted in September 2016.

32. We noted the importance of the work of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) to meet ongoing challenges posed by chemical weapons, including the specter of chemical terrorism, and the misuse of toxic materials as weapons by State non-State actors. In this regard, we welcomed the 20th Anniversary of the Establishment of the OPCW and adopted the EAS Leader's Statement on Chemical Weapons.

33. We commended the work of the EAS Track II Study Group on Enhancing Food Security through Sustainable Fisheries Management and Marine Environment Conservation. We further note the outcomes of the 25th Meeting of ASEAN Sectoral Working Group on Fisheries (ASWGFI) on 17-19 May 2017 in Singapore.

Sustainable Development

34. We reaffirm our support for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development as a framework for inclusive growth, which, among others, aims to end poverty and hunger in all their forms everywhere; reduce inequality within and among countries; to build peaceful, just and inclusive societies; to protect human rights and promote gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls; and to ensure the lasting protection of the planet and its natural resources, and strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development. We recognized the need to address the multidimensional aspects of poverty and the comprehensive and integrated approach required to address its root causes and impact on the lives of the people. To this effect, we adopted the EAS Leader's Statement on Cooperation in Poverty Alleviation.

Regional and International Issues

South China Sea

35. We discussed concerns on some matters relating to the South China Sea and took note of the improving relations between ASEAN and China and, in this regard, are encouraged by the adoption of the framework of the Code of Conduct for the South China Sea (COC), which will facilitate the work and negotiation for the conclusion of a substantive and effective COC. In view of this positive momentum, we welcomed the announcement of the start of substantive negotiations on the COC between ASEAN and China at the 20th ASEAN-China Summit and the subsequent convening of the 23rd ASEAN-China Joint Working Group Meeting on the Implementation of the DOC in Viet Nam in early 2018.

36. We underscored the commitment of ASEAN Member States and China to ensure the full and effective implementation of the Declaration of the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) in its entirety.

37. We reaffirmed the importance of the peaceful resolution of disputes and the maintenance of peace, stability, security and freedom of navigation in and over-flight in the South China Sea. We stressed the importance for the parties concerned to resolve their disputes by peaceful means, in accordance with universally recognized principles of international law, including the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law (UNCLOS). We also emphasized the importance of non-militarization in the South China Sea.

Korean Peninsula

38. Serious concern was expressed over the escalation of tensions in the Korean Peninsula, while some condemned the ongoing development of nuclear weapons and ballistic missile technologies by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), which are in contravention of United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolutions and which threaten regional and international peace and stability. In this regard, we strongly urged the DPRK to immediately comply fully with its obligations under all relevant UNSC resolutions. This would be an important step for returning to serious denuclearisation dialogue.

39. We committed to working closely together on the implementation of UNSC resolutions and relevant non-proliferation cooperation. We reaffirmed the importance of peace and security in the region and reiterated support for the complete, verifiable and irreversible denuclearisation of the Korean Peninsula in a peaceful manner. We also emphasized the importance of addressing humanitarian concerns of the international community, including the abductions issue.

40. We expressed support for initiatives to improve inter-Korean relations toward establishing permanent peace in the Korean Peninsula. We also shared the view that the upcoming PyeongChang Winter Olympic Games could serve as a useful occasion to promote peace and stability in the Korean Peninsula.


41. We strongly condemned terrorist attacks, including those in recent months, which had caused significant loss of life. We discussed the need for countries to join efforts to prevent and counter terrorism and violent extremism. The successful efforts of the Philippines in ending the crisis in Marawi City was acknowledged. In this regard, we adopted the EAS Leaders' Statement on Countering Ideological Challenges of Terrorism and Terrorist Narratives and Propaganda and the EAS Leaders' Declaration on Anti-Money Laundering and Countering the Financing of Terrorism. Regarding terrorism prevention, we also noted the conduct of the EAS Regional Seminar on Capacity Building to Counter Violent Extremism, which was co-organized by Indonesia and the ROK on 5-6 December 2016 in Surabaya, Indonesia, as well as look forward to the AIPR Regional Youth Conference on Peace and Tolerance in Indonesia with the support of the Republic of Korea.


42. We recalled the Statement on Issues Related to Security of and in the Use of Information and Communications Technology and reaffirmed our joint commitment to promoting an international stability framework for cyberspace based on international law, certain voluntary, non-binding norms of responsible state behaviour in peacetime, and confidence building measures, supported by coordinated capacity building programmes.

Regional Economic Integration

43. We welcomed the outcomes of the fifth EAS Economic Ministers' Meeting, held on 9 September 2017 in Pasay City, Philippines. We welcomed efforts to enhance regional economic integration in East Asia and the Asia Pacific and to take forward the ASEAN Economic Community.

44. We reiterated the importance our continued consultations to ensure the sustained growth of our economies to enable us to withstand challenges emanating from the ever-shifting global dynamics.

45. We noted the importance of bilateral, regional and plurilateral trade agreements being open, transparent and WTO-consistent. We committed to working with other members of the WTO towards achieving success at the 11th WTO Ministerial Conference to be held in Buenos Aires in December this year.

Women's Economic Empowerment

46. We noted the importance of women's economic empowerment as a driver of broader regional growth. We commended the conduct of the ASEAN Women's Business Conference in August 2017 in Manila, the Philippines, and looked forward to mainstreaming gender perspectives in ASEAN Community, particularly advancing women's economic empowerment in trade, leadership, and entrepreneurship, including in micro-, small-, and medium-enterprises, to realize the economic potentials of women, as drivers of inclusive and sustainable economic growth.

Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA)

47. We commended ERIA's resolve in promoting regional economic integration, including support for RCEP negotiations and the implementation of the Master Plan on ASEAN Connectivity (MPAC) 2025 and took note of its key research outcomes that will further guide ASEAN in its efforts on trade facilitation, in particular on the conduct of research studies and development of tools and databases on Non-Tariff Measures as well as the ASEAN Seamless Trade Facilitation Indicators as part of the Philippines' economic priority deliverables for its chairmanship. We appreciated ERIA's contribution to the 8th ASEAN Connectivity Symposium, the High-Level Forum on ASEAN @ 50: Retrospectives and Perspectives on the Making, Substance, Significance and Future of ASEAN, and the publication of the five-volume book set to commemorate the 50-year anniversary of ASEAN. We further welcomed ERIA's activities in new areas such as efforts to strengthen regional health services. We encouraged ERIA to continue to provide support for the Chair of the ASEAN Summit and East Asia Summit and to continue to provide actionable policy recommendations to EAS Economic Ministers.

IUU Fishing

48. We noted that challenges of Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing remain and have become even more complex in the region. We encouraged promoting regional cooperation to address this issue, including through supporting the effective implementation of relevant international law.

Counter-Wildlife and Timber Trafficking

49. We expressed our commitment to demonstrating leadership in the global fight against the illegal trade in wildlife, timber and associated products. We reaffirmed the importance of working together to enhance biodiversity conservation, ensure sustainable management and conservation of wildlife populations, reduce demand for illegal wildlife and timber products, and curb illegal trade of wildlife and associated products in accordance with our respective international obligations including the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).

50th Anniversary of ASEAN

50. We acknowledged and expressed our appreciation to EAS countries for their activities in support of and in commemoration of the 50th anniversary of ASEAN.

51. H.E. Rodrigo Roa Duterte, President of the Republic of the Philippines, hosted a lunch in honor of the Heads of State/Government of EAS countries and Guests of the Chair, namely, the Prime Minister of Canada, the President of the European Council, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, and the Secretary-General of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.

3th East Asia Summit

52. We looked forward to the convening of the 13th East Asia Summit in Singapore in 2018.