"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo


[Place] Phnom Penh
[Date] November 13, 2022
[Source] Ministry or Foreign Affairs of Japan
[Notes] FINAL
[Full text]

1. The 17th East Asia Summit (EAS) was held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia on 13th November 2022. The Meeting was chaired by Samdech Akka Moha Sena Padei Techo Hun Sen, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Cambodia, and attended by the Heads of State/Government and High Representatives of ASEAN Member States, Australia, the People's Republic of China, the Republic of India, Japan, New Zealand, the Republic of Korea (ROK), the Russian Federation, and the United States of America (U.S.). The Secretary-General of ASEAN was also in attendance. The President of the European Council and the Secretary-General of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation briefed the 17th EAS on Food and Energy Security.

Review and Future Direction of the East Asia Summit

2. We reaffirmed our commitment to further strengthening the EAS as the premier Leaders-led forum for dialogue and cooperation on broad strategic, political, and economic issues of common interest and concern with the aim of promoting peace, stability and economic prosperity in East Asia in line with the EAS fundamental documents, including the 2005 Kuala Lumpur Declaration on the East Asia Summit and the 2020 Ha Noi Declaration on the Fifteenth Anniversary of the East Asia Summit and based on the established principles, objectives and modalities of the EAS.

3. We reaffirmed that the EAS will continue to be an open, inclusive, transparent and outward-looking forum that is an integral component of the evolving ASEAN- centred regional architecture, under the guiding principles of the ASEAN Charter, the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia (TAC), the 2011 EAS Declaration on the Principles of Mutually Beneficial Relations and reconfirmed in the ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific (AOIP). We reaffirmed ASEAN's central role in the EAS and underscored ASEAN's commitment to work in close partnership with all EAS participating countries which are an integral component of the ASEAN centred regional architecture. We emphasised upholding the important role of the EAS in strengthening multilateralism founded on the principles of the Charter of the United Nations (UN Charter) and international order based on rule of law. We underscored the need to promote an enabling environment for peace, stability, good governance, and prosperous development for all by ensuring a culture of dialogue and cooperation, enhancing mutual trust and confidence and respect for international law.

4. We underscored the need to further strengthen the EAS to ensure its continued relevance and effectiveness amidst the rapidly evolving regional and global architecture. In this regard, we recognised the continued importance of constructive dialogue on strategic issues among leaders at the EAS in order to address common challenges based on mutual trust, mutual benefit and mutual respect.

5. We welcomed and appreciated the continued efforts to strengthen the EAS work processes, such as the regular engagement of the EAS Ambassadors' Meeting in Jakarta and the EAS Senior Officials' Meeting to ensure the effective follow-up and implementation of the Leaders' decisions and initiatives in a timely manner, including during inter-sessional periods, as well as to promote coherence with other ASEAN-led mechanisms which are mutually reinforcing, through fostering complementarity among the mechanisms and avoiding duplication of work. In this regard, we recognised the role of the Ambassadors of EAS participating countries in Jakarta to discuss the implementation of the Leaders' decisions and EAS cooperation as well as to exchange information on regional development cooperation initiatives and security policies and initiatives, and the discussions on the evolving regional architecture. We also encouraged the further strengthening of the EAS Unit at the ASEAN Secretariat to facilitate and support EAS coordination and cooperation.

Areas of Cooperation

6. We noted with satisfaction the substantive progress made in the areas of EAS cooperation under the Manila Plan of Action to Advance the Phnom Penh Declaration on the EAS Development Initiative (2018-2022). We looked forward to the finalisation of the successor EAS Plan of Action (2023-2027), which will build on the existing Plan of Action and further enhance EAS cooperation over the next five years, including responding to new issues and challenges and facilitating a sustainable and comprehensive recovery of the region.

Environment and Energy

7. We welcomed the virtual convening of the 12th EAS High-Level Seminar on Sustainable Cities (HLS-SC) in February 2022, held under the ASEAN SDG's Frontrunners Cities initiative, and was attended by ASEAN Member States, some EAS participating countries, local level of ASEAN Member States, international and regional organisations, as well as, non-governmental organisations (NGOs). We also welcomed the 13th EAS HLS-SC planned to be held in 2023 in collaboration with other relevant initiatives on cities.

8. We recognised the importance of a sustainable recovery that supports both economic growth as well as climate and sustainability goals and the efforts by EAS participating countries to the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement, including in ensuring targets are aligned with the long-term temperature goals of the Paris Agreement.

9. We welcomed the fruitful outcome of the 16th EAS Energy Ministers Meeting (EAS EMM) on 16th September 2022. We also noted the special session among the EAS energy ministers to exchange views on strategic, policy, and practical cooperation initiatives needed to advance the global climate sustainability and decarbonization agenda in the energy sector by introducing the key aspects of their respective transition plans, policies, major initiatives, challenges, and ongoing learnings as well as the integration of energy transitions into their pandemic recovery efforts.

10. We welcomed the release of the "7th ASEAN Energy Outlook" that outlines scenarios and potential pathways for ASEAN to achieve energy transitions, considering all energy sources and technologies, energy access and social impact, and options for strengthening ASEAN's energy resiliency and the release of the "2nd ASEAN Renewable Energy Outlook: Towards Regional Energy Transition" developed by the International Renewable Energy Agency, focusing on ASEAN's option to accelerate renewables, end-user electrification, energy efficiency and conservation, as well as emerging alternative energy technologies in the region. We also welcomed the successful commencement of the Lao PDR-Thailand-Malaysia-Singapore Power Integration Project (LTMS PIP) on 23rd June 2022 in support of the broader vision of the ASEAN Power Grid (APG). We encouraged the EAS energy cooperation to be further enhanced in line with the ASEAN Plan of Action of Energy Cooperation (APAEC) Phase II: 2021-2025.

11. We encouraged EAS participating countries to strengthen cooperation on climate change adaptation and mitigation, including through the sharing of best practices, and providing technical expertise, among others through relevant platforms such as the ASEAN Centre for Climate Change once it is established.

12. We took note of the progress made under the EAS Leaders' Statement on Sustainable Recovery, which was adopted at the 16th East Asia Summit in October 2021, particularly the importance of a sustainable recovery that is comprehensive, inclusive and resilient, and the need to promote economic policies and growth in trade and investment, sustainable development and climate change solutions. Through this Statement, we took note of the EAS participating countries' decision to (i) support the ASEAN Comprehensive Recovery Framework (ACRF) and its Implementation Plan; (ii) support the implementation of the Strategic and Holistic Initiative to Link ASEAN Responses to Emergencies and Disasters (ASEAN SHIELD); (iii) promote youth participation in climate action.

13. We encouraged EAS participating countries to further strengthen energy cooperation through the implementation of the existing three EAS Energy Cooperation Task Force (ECTF) Work Streams, and other initiatives that seek to enhance greater cooperation in promoting sustainable development as well as opportunities for energy transition while ensuring energy security and resilience. We appreciated the continued advocacy for the promotion of achieving realistic energy transitions, through utilisation of various alternative and emerging low-carbon technologies and system, including the development of hydrogen, fuel ammonia, low carbon emission technologies for mobility, carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS), and carbon recycling. We noted the importance of mobilising finance, technology access and innovation to accelerate energy transitions, and welcomed the expansion of the initiatives from EAS participating countries to strengthen commitments, and to scale up as well as shift investments towards sustainable and climate-resilient infrastructure, including renewable energy and alternative technologies.

14. We recognised deliverables under EAS energy cooperation including the resumption of energy audits for distributed energy systems, as well as the findings and implications of the Joint Research with the Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA) on the "Analysis of EAS Future Mobility Fuel Scenario Considering the Sustainable Use of Biofuels and Other Alternative Vehicle Fuels". We noted the successful organization of the 5th EAS Clean Energy Forum with the topic "Boosting Green Recovery with High Proportion of Renewable Energy" on 25-26 November 2021 via videoconference. We noted the progress of the capacity-building activities and knowledge-sharing conferences to promote CCUS and carbon recycling, including the organisation of the 2nd Asia CCUS Network Forum in September 2022. We noted the contributions of ERIA towards energy policy research activities in the EAS region through the implementation of the rolling 3-year Roadmap on EAS Mid-Term Energy Policy Research for 2021-2023, including the voluntary scenario analyses on the ASEAN Carbon Neutrality Scenario conducted with the Institute of Energy Economics of Japan. We also noted the successful convening of the 5th East Asia Energy Forum (EAEF) and its Phnom Penh Reflections on ASEAN's Challenges on Carbon-Neutrality and Energy Security, which was co-organised by ERIA and Cambodia on 12th September 2022 in a hybrid format.


15. We encouraged and affirmed advancing long-term and mutually beneficial education cooperation, in particular, fostering life-long learning skills and digital literacy, through the alignment of future and complementary action lines under the Manila Plan of Action with the ASEAN Work Plan on Education 2021-2025 as presented at the 7th EAS Senior Officials' Meeting on Education (EAS SOM-ED), and the 6th EAS Education Ministers' Meeting. We welcomed the progress on the implementation of the ASEAN Workplan on Education 2021-2025 and its alignment with the 14 priority areas of education cooperation under the Manila Plan of Action. We commended the implementation of inclusive and equitable quality education programmes and activities by EAS countries in the areas of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET), people-to-people exchanges through increasing scholarship programmes, strengthening competency of teachers in ICT areas, and promoting Education for Sustainable Development (ESD). We took note of the establishment and the ongoing implementation of the ASEAN-India Network of Universities-Faculty Exchange Programme.


16. We reiterated the need to work together to strengthen the global economic recovery. We expressed support for the further strengthening of the region's resilience to external shocks through continued regional financial cooperation and exchanging views on macro-economic and financial developments.

17. We encouraged working together to strengthen cooperation to ensure macroeconomic and financial stability aimed at mitigating the economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on global and regional trade and investment, as well as broader global shocks, all exacerbated by Ukraine's crisis, leading to the sharp rise in fuel and food prices and tightening global financial conditions. Following the 3rd Informal EAS Finance Ministers' Meeting on 12th October 2013 in the United States on the sidelines of the International Monetary Fund/World Bank Annual Meetings, we looked forward to convening the 4th Informal EAS Finance Ministers' Meeting.

Global Health Issues and Pandemic Diseases

18. We welcomed the participation of the EAS participating countries to exchange views and practices on preparedness and response to the current COVID-19 pandemic and future outbreaks of communicable, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases including pandemics, by prioritising cooperation in developing and producing effective, safe and affordable and quality vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostic tools. We welcomed the regional support provided through the COVAX Advance Market Commitment (COVAX AMC) financing instrument as well as multilateral and bilateral contributions of vaccine doses to ASEAN Member States.

19. We recalled the adoption of the EAS Leaders' Statement on Strengthening Collective Capacity in Epidemics Prevention and Response at the 15th EAS on 14 November 2020 which recognises the unprecedented and severe challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and the need to adopt effective and coordinated action to enhance global capacities and financing for pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response to promote the health, well-being, livelihood and safety of our peoples and address the pandemic's adverse impacts on the socio-economic development and sociocultural aspects of EAS participating countries. We took note of ASEAN Health Sector's support to Russia's Concept Paper on a Regional Mechanism for Emerging Infectious Disease Prevention and Control.

20. We recognized the importance of mental health as a critical public health issue which has been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic and called for greater collaboration in mental health. We commended Brunei Darussalam and Australia for jointly leading the regional initiatives on mental health particularly the convening of the EAS Workshop on Mental Health Cooperation in the COVID-19 Recovery in November 2021 following the adoption of the EAS Leaders' Statement on Mental Health Cooperation to address mental health challenges and help navigate relevant policy practices. We looked forward to finding ways to strengthen mental health systems, programmes and interventions that address specific mental needs of population groups, including through the development of an action plan to further regional and international cooperation on mental health.

21. We acknowledged ASEAN's key initiatives in strengthening public health emergency preparedness and response initiatives, such as, the COVID-19 ASEAN Response Fund, the ASEAN Regional Reserve of Medical Supplies for Public Health Emergencies (ASEAN RRMS), the ASEAN Travel Corridor Arrangement Framework (ATCAF), ASEAN Strategic Framework for Public Health Emergencies (ASF-PHE), the ASEAN Centre for Public Health Emergencies and Emerging Diseases (ACPHEED), the ASEAN Public Health Emergency Coordination System (APHECS), the ASEAN Vaccine Security and Self-Reliance (AVSSR), as well as the ASEAN Emergency Operations Centre Network for Public Health Emergencies (ASEAN EOC Network), the ASEAN BioDiaspora Virtual Centre (ABVC) and ASEAN Health Sector coordination mechanisms for disease surveillance, laboratory, biosafety and biosecurity, among others, supported through, the Mitigation of Biological Threats Programme – Phase 2.

22. We welcomed the commitments from the 15th ASEAN Health Ministers Meeting and Relevant Meetings on 11-15 May 2022 on Advancing the Achievement of ASEAN Health Development particularly in building regional health system resilience and accelerating COVID-19 recovery; optimizing mobilization of essential health resources in responding to public health crisis and strengthening health systems for sustainable universal health coverage and health security for resilient health systems. We also acknowledged the progress of the implementation of the ASEAN Post-2015 Health Development Agenda 2021-2025 including the Plan of Action for the ASEAN Leaders' Declaration on Disaster Health Management (2019-2025) and the ASEAN Strategic Framework to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance through One Health Approach (2019- 2030).

23. We emphasized the importance of strengthening collective efforts, among the EAS participating countries, to mitigate the multifaceted impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and facilitate the region towards a resilient recovery. As the region gradually transitions from the Reopening to Recovery and Resilience phases, we took note of the significant progress on the implementation of the ACRF in five broad strategies across health systems, human security, economic integration, digital transformation, and sustainability. We acknowledged the importance of leveraging digitalisation and mainstreaming sustainability across regional recovery efforts and reaffirmed our commitment to continue fostering collaboration and partnership to support the effective implementation of the ACRF.

Disaster Management

24. We emphasised the need to foster closer collaboration in building a disaster resilient region by harmonizing climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction initiatives in the continuous enhancement of regional capacities in disaster management and emergency response aiming to address their impacts on socio- economic development. We reiterated our support for the implementation of the ASEAN Declaration on One ASEAN, One Response: ASEAN Responding to Disasters as One in the Region and Outside the Region to increase the speed, scale and solidarity of ASEAN's response. We reaffirmed our continued support for the implementation of the priority programmes of the ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency Response (AADMER) Work Programme (2021-2025) as well as strengthening the capacity of the ASEAN Coordinating Centre for Humanitarian Assistance on disaster management (AHA Centre) as the primary ASEAN regional coordinating agency on disaster management and emergency response.

25. We encouraged strengthening engagements between the ASEAN Committee on Disaster Management (ACDM) and the National Disaster Management Organizations (NDMOs) of non-ASEAN EAS participating countries, through active participation in ASEAN-led activities including the biennial ASEAN Disaster Resilience Forum (ADRF), the biennial ASEAN Regional Disaster Emergency Response Simulation Exercise (ARDEX) and the annual ASEAN Strategic Policy Dialogue on Disaster Management (SPDDM). We also encouraged the EAS participating countries to promote cooperation in disaster management including through the realization of the 2014 EAS Statement on Rapid Disaster Response to respond effectively to disasters in the region while respecting ASEAN Centrality.

ASEAN Connectivity

26. We reaffirmed the importance of promoting connectivity to facilitate trade, investment and services competitiveness in the region and to support socio-economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. In this connection, we commended efforts in supporting ASEAN's implementation of the Master Plan on ASEAN Connectivity (MPAC) 2025 and looked forward to the development of further tangible connectivity projects. We also encouraged further engagement between the ASEAN Connectivity Coordinating Committee (ACCC) and the non-ASEAN EAS participating countries through the ASEAN Connectivity meetings and events and, on this note, we welcomed the 13th ASEAN Connectivity Symposium on "Enhancing Connectivity Towards an Inclusive, Sustainable and Resilient ASEAN Community Post 2025 Vision" and the ACCC Consultation with Dialogue Partners and Other External Partners held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia on 3-4 October 2022, respectively.

27. We acknowledged that timely and effective mobilisation of resources to support connectivity, high quality and sustainable infrastructure, smart cities, and transport is critical to strengthening the region's resilience in dealing with future public health emergencies and other crises and meeting the needs of communities. We also acknowledged the benefit of working together among the EAS participating countries in the Mekong, BIMP-EAGA and IMT-GT sub-region, as well as aligning sub-regional growth with the comprehensive development of ASEAN. We reaffirmed the importance of promoting greater synergies among the various connectivity strategies within and beyond the region.

Economic Cooperation and Trade

28. We underscored the importance of working together to facilitate the flow of goods and services, especially those essential to supporting public health and economic responses at this critical time. We are committed to the common goal of advancing stronger and more sustainable economic growth in the region by facilitating trade and investment, restoring tourism and tourism-related sectors, building resilient and secure supply chains, maintaining supportive fiscal policy actions and monetary policies, ensuring strong macroeconomic fundamentals and a predictable business environment.

29. We recalled the EAS Leaders' Statement on Sustainable Recovery, which complements the shared vision to promote a more holistic and comprehensive response to the pandemic which enables swift economic progress and ensures sustainable and inclusive development.

30. We reaffirmed our commitment to strengthen the rules-based, non- discriminatory, open, fair, inclusive, equitable, and transparent multilateral trading system, with the WTO at its core and welcomed successful outcomes of the 12th WTO Ministerial Conference held on 12-17 June 2022. We underscored the importance of strengthening economic relations among the EAS participating countries with ASEAN playing a central role. We encouraged increased dialogue on common economic challenges facing EAS participating countries to further strengthen regional economic security, regional economic integration, global supply chain resilience, and narrow the development gap in the region. Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) participating countries welcomed the entry into force of the RCEP Agreement on 1st January 2022 and looked forward to the full and effective implementation of the Agreement.

31. We welcomed the successful convening of the 11th Meeting of SEOM-EAS Consultations in August 2022 and the 10th EAS Economic Ministers' Meeting (EMM) on 17th September 2022, both hosted by Cambodia.

32. We commended ERIA for its continued research and analysis on key regional economic issues that support economic integration, digital transformation, and sustainable economic development in the region, including the publication of its study on "Comprehensive Asia Development Plan 3.0 (CADP 3.0)". We welcomed the report of the 15th ERIA Governing Board Meeting held on 2nd June 2022, which highlighted the strategies for establishing a more integrated, innovative, inclusive and sustainable economy in ASEAN and East Asia by promoting physical and digital connectivity in the region. We encouraged ERIA to continue providing support for the Chair of the ASEAN Summits and the EAS through targeted high-quality research and actionable policy recommendations, as exemplified through ERIA's paper on "East Asia Post Pandemic – An Integrative, Innovative, Inclusive, and Sustainable Region through Digitalisation" which was presented to EAS Economic Ministers. We welcomed the establishment of the Centre for Digital Innovation and Sustainable Economy in ERIA, which will help to strengthen and deepen its research capabilities on innovative and sustainable solutions in ASEAN and the East Asia region.

33. We stressed the importance of continuing to leverage digitalisation and incorporating sustainability in the region's responses to achieve an inclusive and durable post-pandemic recovery. In this connection, we noted ERIA's paper on "East Asia Post Pandemic – An Integrative, Innovative, Inclusive, and Sustainable Region through Digitalisation", which recommends the need to realise a digitalized EAS region underpinned by four pillars: integration, innovation, inclusiveness, and sustainability to enable the region to respond quickly and effectively to future economic crises and to minimise the impact of such crises on the region. We acknowledged the importance of harnessing full potential of data and the opportunities of the digital economy, including the importance of facilitating data free flow with trust for development of the digital economy, which strengthens consumer and business trust and supporting ongoing negotiations on electronic commerce at the WTO.

Food Security

34. We reaffirmed our commitments to implement the 2013 EAS Declaration on Food Security and stressed the need to further enhance food security and nutrition through the implementation of the new ASEAN Integrated Food Security (AIFS) Framework and the Strategic Plan of Action on Food Security (SPA-FS) 2021-2025, which was adopted by the 42nd ASEAN Ministers on Agriculture and Forestry (AMAF) in Cambodia in 2020. We expressed support for the work of the AMAF in ensuring resilient and sustainable agriculture and food systems, promoting sustainable agriculture and implementing climate-smart agriculture that strengthens the capacity of ASEAN to address the impacts of climate change on food production in the region. We looked forward to the implementation of the ASEAN Guidelines on Sustainable Agriculture and the development of the ASEAN Leaders' Declaration on Strengthening Food Security in 2023 to take practical and concrete measures in unifying the roles of all relevant sectors in strengthening regional food supply chains and logistics systems to ensure food security to address the regional and global food crisis. To this end, some EAS participating countries raised concern over the food crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the ongoing war in Ukraine.

35. We took note of the progress on the completion of action line 8.2 of the Manila POA with regard to participation in activities of the EAS Track II Study Group on Enhancing Food Security through Sustainable Fisheries Management and Marine Environmental Conservation on a voluntary basis, including recent activities in this area such as the EAS Workshop on Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing.

Maritime Cooperation

36. We expressed our support for strengthening maritime cooperation among the EAS participating countries in accordance with international law, especially UNCLOS 1982, and the 2015 EAS Statement on Enhancing Regional Maritime Cooperation and the Manila Plan of Action in a collective and comprehensive approach, at the same time emphasising the need to enhance complementarity with other ASEAN led- mechanisms such as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the ASEAN Defence Ministers' Meeting Plus (ADMM-Plus), and the Expanded ASEAN Maritime Forum (EAMF), with a view to avoiding duplication of efforts. We took note of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) Resolution A/RES/76/72 emphasising, in the Preamble, the universal and unified character of the 1982 UNCLOS, and reaffirming that the Convention sets out the legal framework within which all activities in the oceans and seas must be carried out and is of strategic importance as the basis for national, regional and global action and cooperation in the marine sector and that its integrity needs to be maintained.

37. We took note of the outcomes of the 5th EAS Conference on Maritime Security Cooperation held in Kolkata, hosted by India in partnership with Australia on 23-24 November 2021, in hybrid format which highlighted the critical need to further bolster maritime security through 1) building and maintaining international maritime orders based on the rule of law, 2) ensuring safe maritime transport, 3) providing capacity- building assistance to the maritime law enforcement agencies and organizations, and 4) promoting international cooperation on Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA). We also welcomed the convening of the EAS Workshop on IUU-Fishing on 12th April 2022 co-organised by India and Singapore with a focus to showcase the progress made by the EPCs and sharing the national success stories and experience gained in curbing IUU Fishing. We also took note of the adoption of documents at the 43rd AMAF Meeting, which aimed to promote responsible and sustainable fishing, and efficient aquaculture practices to help mitigate the repercussions on natural resources.

38. We recognised the need in the strengthening of maritime cooperation and taking into account the cross-cutting nature of maritime cooperation through activities such as the 9th EAMF, hosted by Brunei Darussalam via videoconference in November 2021, and the EAS Workshop on Combating Marine Pollution with a focus on marine plastic debris held on 14-15 February 2022, co-hosted virtually by Singapore, Australia and India. We looked forward to the India's plan to organise the 6th EAS Conference on Maritime Security and Cooperation and an EAS Seminar on Conservation of Migratory Wildlife Species and Combatting Illegal Trafficking, and ROK and Australia's plan to host ROK-Australia-ASEAN Maritime Connectivity Forum in 2023. We also welcomed the successful convening of the 2022 EAS Workshop on Maritime Cooperation, with the theme "Technical and Scientific Cooperation towards Clean, Healthy, and Sustainable Oceans" on 30th August to 1st September 2022, hosted by the Philippines.

Other Areas

39. We stressed the growing importance of security in the use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs), and reaffirmed the need to enhance cooperation to promote an open, secure, stable, accessible and peaceful, interoperable and cooperative ICT environment including through capacity building. In this connection, we welcomed the convening of the EAS cyber capacity building workshop on Regional Cyber Capacity Building: Seizing the Fourth Industrial Revolution in 2020, which was co-hosted by Singapore and Australia via videoconference. We also recognised the importance of preventing conflict and crisis in the ICT environment by developing trust and confidence among states.

40. We acknowledged that discussions on traditional and non-traditional security issues had been increasingly featured in the EAS, and reaffirmed their commitment to implement the relevant EAS Leaders' Statements and Declarations, including the 2017 EAS Leader's Statement on Countering Ideological Challenges of Terrorism and Terrorist Narratives and Propaganda, 2018 EAS Leader's Statement on Countering the Threat of Foreign Terrorist Fighters and Returnees, the 2020 EAS Leaders' Statement on Women, Peace and Security, the 2019 EAS Leaders' Statement on Cooperation to Combat Transnational Crime, the 2019 EAS Leaders' Statement on Combating the Spread of Illicit Drugs, the 2018 EAS Leaders' Statement on the Safe and Security Use, Storage, and Transport of Nuclear and Other Radioactive Materials, the 2017 EAS Leaders' Statement on Chemical Weapons, and the 2016 EAS Statement on Non-Proliferation. We looked forward to the 9th ADMM Plus Meeting on 23rd November 2022 in Siem Reap.

41. We emphasised that tourism is one of the main contributors to economic growth, employment, social benefits and livelihoods of local communities, and commended the relentless efforts by the tourism sector in implementing timely and innovative measures as guided by the Post-COVID-19 Recovery Plan for ASEAN Tourism and the updated ASEAN Tourism Strategic Plan (ATSP) 2016-2025. In this connection, we encouraged all EAS participating countries to implement the EAS Leaders' Statement on Economic Growth through Tourism Recovery, which was adopted at the 16th EAS on 27th October 2021, through the existing ASEAN tourism mechanisms with the Plus Ones and the Plus Three countries in line with the Post- COVID-19 Recovery Plan for ASEAN Tourism, and explore the possibility of initiating dialogues on tourism among relevant agencies of the EAS participating countries.

42. We acknowledged that the protection and promotion of natural and cultural heritage are important, and delivers benefits for economic growth and sustainable development. Heritage-related tourism is especially critical to livelihoods of many across the region, including indigenous peoples. Thus, we requested all EAS participating countries to join together to develop meaningful policies and actions focused on stopping looting of archaeological sites and trafficking in cultural property, developing new partnerships to build international quality heritage sites and institutions to house cultural properties returned, and promoting research on historical significance of certain looted cultural property. We also looked forward to the adoption and implementation of the ASEAN Framework on Sustainable Tourism Development in the Post COVID-19 Era initiated by ASEAN Tourism Ministers in 2022.

Regional and International Issues

Developments in the Korean Peninsula

43. Most EAS participating countries expressed grave concerns over the recent surge in the DPRK's ballistic missile launches, including Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) tests this year and its escalatory and destabilising rhetoric on the possible use of nuclear weapons. We stressed the importance of continued peaceful dialogue amongst all parties concerned, and expressed support for the ROK's effort to realise lasting peace and stability in a denuclearised, peaceful, and prosperous Korean Peninsula. Many EAS participating countries called on the DPRK to fully comply with all relevant UNSC Resolutions (UNSCRs), reiterated commitment to the full implementation of all relevant UNSCRs, and noted international efforts to bring about the complete, verifiable, and irreversible denuclearisation of the Korean Peninsula in a peaceful manner. We reiterated the readiness to play a constructive role, including through utilising ASEAN-led platforms in promoting a conducive atmosphere to peaceful dialogue amongst the parties concerned. We noted the views expressed on the importance of addressing issues of humanitarian concerns of the international community, including the immediate resolution of the abductions issue.

South China Sea

44. We reaffirmed the importance of maintaining and promoting peace, security, stability, safety, and freedom of navigation in and overflight above the South China Sea and recognised the benefits of having the South China Sea as a sea of peace, stability, and prosperity. We underscored the importance of the full and effective implementation of the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC) in its entirety. Some EAS participating countries welcomed ongoing efforts to strengthen cooperation between ASEAN and China, and the ongoing negotiations towards the early conclusion of an effective and substantive Code of Conduct in the South China Sea (COC) consistent with international law, including the 1982 UNCLOS, within a mutually-agreed timeline. We welcomed the resumption of physical textual negotiation of the Single Draft COC Negotiating Text (SDNT) through the convening of the 36th JWG-DOC on 25-27 May 2022 in Siem Reap and the 37th JWG-DOC on 1-3 October 2022 in Phnom Penh, and looked forward to the early conclusion of an effective and substantive COC that is in accordance with international law, including the 1982 UNCLOS. We emphasised the need to maintain and promote an environment conducive to the COC negotiations, and thus welcomed practical measures that could reduce tensions and the risk of accidents, misunderstandings, and miscalculation. We stressed the importance of undertaking confidence building and preventive measures to enhance, among others, trust and confidence amongst parties and also reaffirmed the importance of upholding international law, including the 1982 UNCLOS.

45. We discussed the situation in the South China Sea, during which concerns were expressed by some EAS participating countries on the land reclamations, activities, and serious incidents in the area, which have eroded trust and confidence, increased tensions, and may undermine peace, security, and stability in the region. We reaffirmed the need to enhance mutual trust and confidence, exercise self-restraint in the conduct of activities that would complicate or escalate disputes and affect peace, security and stability, and avoid actions that may further complicate the situation. We further reaffirmed the need to pursue peaceful resolution of disputes in accordance with the principles of international law, including the 1982 UNCLOS. We emphasised the importance of non-militarisation and self-restraint in the conduct of all activities by claimants and all other states, including those mentioned in the 2002 DOC that could further complicate the situation and escalate tensions in the South China Sea.

Cross Strait Development

46. Some EAS participating countries called for the peaceful resolution of cross- strait issues while reiterating their respective One-China Policy.

Developments in Myanmar

47. We extensively discussed the recent developments in Myanmar and expressed deep concerns over the situation in the country, including the implication of execution of four opposition activists, and the escalating violence and killing of civilians, which are worsening the humanitarian situation throughout the country. We welcomed the efforts to help address the situation including visits to Myanmar by Samdech Techo Hun Sen, Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Cambodia, in January 2022, and by H.E. Mr. Prak Sokhonn, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of the Kingdom of Cambodia, as the Special Envoy of the ASEAN Chair on Myanmar in March and late June to early July 2022. Most EAS participating countries expressed deep disappointment with the little progress in the implementation of the Five-Point Consensus. We reiterated our commitment to peace and stability in the region and expressed ASEAN's readiness to assist Myanmar's return to democratic path in a positive, peaceful, and constructive manner, and advancing the delivery of humanitarian assistance. In this regard, we welcomed the adoption of the ASEAN Leaders' Review and Decision on the Implementation of the Five-Point Consensus. We expressed support for the Special Envoy of the ASEAN Chair on Myanmar to engage with relevant Myanmar stakeholders at the earliest.

Countering Violent Extremism, Radicalisation to Violence and Terrorism

48. We reaffirmed our commitment to countering terrorism, violent extremism conducive to terrorism radicalization, and violent extremism through the effective implementation of counter-terrorism measures at the national, sub-regional and regional levels including in line with the ASEAN Convention on Counter-Terrorism where applicable, the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy, the relevant UNSC Resolutions, 2017 EAS Leader's Statement on Countering Ideological Challenges of Terrorism and Terrorist Narratives and Propaganda, 2018 EAS Leader's Statement on Countering the Threat of Foreign Terrorist Fighters and Returnees and the 2020 EAS Leaders' Statement on Women, Peace and Security. Recognising the importance of a collective and comprehensive approach to address terrorism, radicalisation and violent extremism conducive to terrorism. We expressed continued support for the implementation of the ASEAN Plan of Action to Prevent and Counter the Rise of Radicalisation and Violent Extremism (PoA PCRVE) 2018-2025 (Bali Work Plan).

Enduring Regional Architecture

49. We recognised the challenges and uncertainties facing the region that could undermine regional security, sustainable development and economic growth, and affect the dynamic of an open, stable, prosperous and inclusive people-centred ASEAN Community and ASEAN Centrality. We reaffirmed the importance of the TAC and Bali Principles as the key code of conduct governing inter-State relations in the region, underscored its relevance to the wider region and recognised its contribution to promoting regional peace, stability and security.

50. We reiterated the importance of the ASEAN Outlook on the Indo-Pacific (AOIP) as a guide for ASEAN's engagement in the wider Asia-Pacific and Indian Ocean regions and encouraged the enhancement and promotion of practical cooperation in priority areas identified in the AOIP, namely maritime cooperation, connectivity, UN Sustainable Development Goals, and economic and other possible areas of cooperation to further promote mutual trust, mutual respect, and confidence as well as to contribute to peace and prosperity in the region.

Situation in Ukraine

51. With regard to the conflict in Ukraine, many EAS participating countries reaffirmed the need to respect sovereignty, political independence, and territorial integrity of Ukraine as enshrined in the United Nations Charter. We discussed the situation in Ukraine and recalled national positions as expressed at various fora, especially the UNSC and UNGA. Most EAS participating countries expressed their condemnation over the aggression against Ukraine. Many EAS participating countries underscored that nuclear weapons must never be used. We also reiterated the call for compliance with international law, including the United Nations Charter, and adherence to the fundamental principles enshrined in the ASEAN Charter and the TAC. We underlined the importance of an immediate end to the war and a just peace based on the principles of the United Nations Charter. We acknowledged the importance of the role of the United Nations Secretary-General, United Nations Agencies and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in providing humanitarian assistance in accordance with the basic principles of humanity, neutrality and impartiality as established in UNGA resolutions. We also called for the facilitation of rapid, safe and unhindered access for humanitarian assistance delivery to those in need in Ukraine, and for the protection of civilians, humanitarian personnel, and persons in vulnerable situations. Some EAS participating countries also took note of the view that the root cause of the situation in Ukraine should also be addressed and the legitimate concerns on all countries must be taken into consideration. Many EAS participating countries welcomed Ukraine's accession to the TAC.

Other matters

52. With the intent of generating considerable momentum of EAS cooperation, supporting ongoing efforts towards a comprehensive and sustainable COVID-19 pandemic recovery and ensuring long-term resilience, we supported the issuance of the Chairman's Statement of the 17th EAS on Advancing Women's Economic Empowerment, Strengthening Energy Cooperation for a Comprehensive Post-COVID- 19 Recovery, and Promoting Volunteerism for Sustainable Development.

53. We looked forward to the convening of the 18th East Asia Summit to be held in Indonesia in 2023.