"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] Treaty of Nerchinsk (Treaty of Nipchu)

[Place] Nerchinsk
[Date] August 27, 1689
[Source] Ei Bei Futsu Ro no kakkoku oyobi Shinakoku kan no Joyaku, Gaimusyo Joyakukyoku, pp. 1709-1711.
[Full text]


Signed 27th, August, 1689

Their Majesties the Grand Dukes JOANN ALEXEEVITCH and PETER ALEXEEVITCH, by the Grace of God (Joint) Emperors, Czars, and Autocrats of all the Russias, Great, Small, and White; Emperors and Lords over, and successors from immediate and remote ancestors to the Crowns of, many Kingdoms and Countries, Eastern, Western, and Northern; having appointed as their Envoys and Plenipotentiaries THEODORUS ALEXEEVITCH GOLOVIN, Minister of the Presence and Governor-General of Briansk; IVAN ASTAFFJEVITCH VLASOFF, Minister of the Household and Governor-General of Elatomsk; and SEMEN KORNITSKY, Deacon (of the Orthodox Church);

And His Majesty the Bogdokhan (i.e., Heavenly-appointed Ruler) of China, Supreme Ruler of Great Asiatic Countries, the Most Powerful Monarch, Wiset{sic} Ruler, Exponent of Heaven’s Law, Most Enlightened Noble, entrusted by Heaven with the government of China for the welfare and glory of its people, having appointed as his Envoys SAG-MU-TU, Commander of the Imperial Body Guard, Grand Secretary, and Councillor of State; TUM-KE-KAM, Grand Secretary, Prince of the First Rank, Commander of Banner Corps, and Member of the Imperial Clan; and LAM-TAN, Commander of Banner Corps, etc.:

And the aforesaid Envoys having met near Nerchinsk, they have agreed upon the following Articles:--


The river Gorbitza, which joins the Schilka from its left side near the river Tchernaya, is to form the boundary between the two Empires. The boundary from the source of that river to the sea will run along the top of the mountain chain (in which the river rises). The jurisdiction of the two Empires will be divided in such a way that (the valleys of) all the rivers or streams flowing from the southern slope of these mountains to join the Amur shall belong to the Empire of China (lit. of Han), while (the valleys of) all the rivers flowing down from the other (or northern) side of these mountains shall be similarly under the rule of His Majesty the Czar of the Russian Empire. As to the (the valleys of) the other rivers which lie between the Russian river Oud and the aforesaid mountains-- running near the Amur and extending to the sea, -- which are now under Chinese rule, the question of the jurisdiction over them is to remain open. On this point the (Russian) Ambassadors are (at present) without explicit instructions from the Czar. Hereafter, when the Ambassadors on both sides shall have returned (? to their respective countries), the Czar and the Emperor of China (Han) will decide the question on terms of amity, either by sending Plenipotentiaries or by written correspondence.


Similarly, the river Argun, which flows into the Amur, will form the frontier along its whole length. All territory on the left bank is to be under the rule of the Emperor of China (Khan of Han); all on the right bank will be included in the Empire of the Czar. All habitations on the south side will be transferred to the other.


The fortified town of Albazin, built by His Majesty the Czar, is to be completely demolished, and the people residing there, with all military and other stores and equipment, are to be moved into Russian territory. Those moved can take all their property with them, and they are not to be allowed to suffer loss (by detention of any of it).


Fugitives (lit. runaways) from either side who may have settled in the other’s country previous to the date of this Treaty may remain. No claims for their rendition will be made on either side. But those who may take refuge in either country after the date of this Treaty of Amity are to be sent without delay to the frontier and at once handed over to the chief local officials.


It is to be understood by both Governments that from the time when this Treaty of Amity is made, the subjects of either nation, being provided with proper passports, may come and go (across the frontier) on their private business and may carry on commerce (lit. buy and sell).


All the differences (lit. quarrels) which may have occurred between the subjects (of each nation) on the frontier up to the date of this Treaty will be forgotten and (claims arising out of them will) not be entertained. But if hereafter any of the subjects (lit. traders or craftsmen) of either nationality pass the frontier (as if) for private (and legitimate) business, and (while in the foreign territory) commit crimes of violence to property and life, they are at once to be arrested and sent to the frontier of their own country and handed over to the chief local authority (military), who will inflict on them the death penalty as a punishment for their crimes. Crimes and excesses committed by private people on the frontier must not be made the cause of war and bloodshed by either side. When cases of this kind arise, they are to be reported by (the officers of) the side on which they occur to the Sovereigns of both Powers, for settlement by diplomatic negotiation in an amicable manner.

If the Emperor of China desires to engrave (on stone) the Articles of the above Treaty agreed upon by the Envoys for the determination of the frontier, and to place the same (at certain positions) on the frontier as a record, he is at liberty to do so. Whether this is to be done or not is left entirely to the discretion of His Majesty the Emperor of China.