"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] Denver Summit of the Eight, Japan's Initiatives, Denver Summit

[Place] Denver
[Date] June 20, 1997
[Source] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
[Full text]

I. Initiative for a Caring World

1. OECD Meeting of Social Policy Ministers (Drafting of National Reports)

As part of the Initiative for a Caring World proposed by Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto at the 1996 Lyon Summit, Japan proposed in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development that its member countries prepare national reports on the current state of and the issues regarding their social security policies. Those national reports are to be presented at the 3rd OECD Meeting of Social Policy Ministers to be held in June 1998 so that all members can benefit from the experience and knowledge reflected in these reports to improve their social security policies. Progress is currently being made in the OECD.

2. East Asian Ministerial Meeting on Caring Societies (Follow-up)

As part of the Initiative for a Caring World, Japan in December 1996 hosted the East Asian Ministerial Meeting on Caring Societies in Okinawa, with the participation of East Asian countries as well as observers from the G-7 and other countries and international organizations. At this meeting, Japan explained its health, medical and welfare systems and Official Development Assistance (ODA) policies for the social development of developing countries. The participating countries offered their know-how on social security systems. As a follow-up to this meeting, a senior officials meeting will be held some time during this fiscal year.

II. Initiatives for the Environment

1. Initiatives for Sustainable Development (ISD) toward the 21st Century (ISD)

A. Acid Rain Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia

In order to share collected data on acid deposition in East Asia and other relevant data, a network will be established among participating countries in this region. The first inter-governmental meeting will be held in March 1998 and assistance (training, dispatch of experts, provision of needed materials) will be provided through ODA, reflecting the actual situation in each country.

B. Air and Water Pollution and Waste Disposal

In order to tackle the sources of pollution in developing countries, environmental centers in Thailand, Indonesia and China will play a central role for the capacity of each developing country. The mutual relationship among these centers will be strengthened. Financial and technical assistance for pollution control will also be provided, as well as support for the Asian Productivity Organization (APO).

C. Seminar on Global Warming

Through the Seminar on Global Warming organized by the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Japan will provide with countries of the Asia-Pacific region the latest information on scientific and technical aspects of the Third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP III). Further, by explaining the measures that Japan has taken, assistance will be provided to other countries as they carry out their responsibilities under the convention.

D. Biodiversity Conservation Initiative

The Indonesia Biodiversity Center will serve as the core in the compilation of information on the natural environment of this region in order to create a database and will develop biodiversity conservation measures as a model project in East Asia, (Workshops, third-country training and other means will be used to assist in the creation of a network among experts).

Furthermore, Japan and the United States will cooperate toward the creation of a system to preserve the ecosystems of Latin America and the Caribbean regions by the year 2000 (continued assistance for parks management and environmental education projects implemented through NGOs, and continued efforts to expand those projects into the Asia-Pacific region).

E. Coral Reef Conservation Network

The establishment of a center will be considered to conduct research on coral reef conservation with the goal of creating a research network which focuses on the countries in the Asia-Pacific region with rich coral reefs (Indonesia, the Philippines, and Palau). (Training at coral reef preservation training courses in Okinawa and elsewhere and workshops will be held, and efforts will be made within the framework of the International Coral Reef Initiative in the context of the Japan-U.S. Common Agenda.)

F. Promoting Sustainable Forest Management and Enhancing Cooperation to Combat Desertification

Japan will continue its positive contribution to the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). Efforts will be continued toward achieving the ITTO Year 2000 Goals. In the forestry sector, some model projects are being developed in India, Thailand, Nepal and elsewhere with the participation of local residents and cooperation of NGOs. Japan will expand these models to other countries. Efforts will also be made to strengthen the Afforestation Cooperation Project (Senegal and Nigeria).

G. Policy Dialogue to Raise Awareness of the Environment

Since 1989, Japan has dispatched environmental missions to engage in policy dialogue on the environment. In June 1996, the first meeting of the Japan-China Comprehensive Forum on Environmental Cooperation was held in Beijing, a new policy dialogue process with the participation of government and nongovernmental sectors. Efforts will continue to be strengthened in this regard.

H. Environmental Education

Recognizing that there is a need to raise awareness of the environment in order to improve the capacity of developing countries to respond to environmental issues, Japan has assisted the promotion of environmental education programs in developing countries through more flexible application of grant assistance for grass-roots projects. Cooperation with the Global Legislators Organization for a Balanced Environment (GLOBE) is another important element. During the current fiscal year, Japan will sponsor the UNESCO Environmental Education Seminar with the participation of government officials and experts in the Asia-Pacific region.

2. Global Remedy for the Environment and Energy Use: GREEN Initiative

The ultimate solution to the climate change problem requires a substantial reduction in global CO2 emissions. For example, assuming that the concentration of CO2 is to be stabilized at a level which is twice as high as that before the Industrial Revolution, it is estimated that the average level of CO2 emission per capita in developed countries needs to be reduced from 3.5 carbon tons in 1990 to approximately no more than 1 carbon ton by the year 2100.

For this purpose, Japan invites developed countries to develop and diffuse "Green Technology" and to disseminate "Green Technology" to developing countries by "Green Aid" under the GREEN initiative, Global Remedy for the Environment and Energy use, for the ultimate solution to the climate change problem.

A. Green Technology

Japan invites developed countries to develop and diffuse "Green Technology" for preventing global warming. "Green Technology" includes: development and diffusion of energy-saving technologies in the industrial, consumer, and transportation sectors; introduction of nonfossil fuel energy, such as solar energy; promotion of global forestation and forest conservation; and development of innovative environmental and energy technologies, such as CO2 sequestration (into ocean and aquifer) technologies.

B. Green Aid

Given the increased CO2 emissions which will accompany the economic growth of developing countries, Japan invites developed countries to disseminate "Green Technology" to developing countries by "Green Aid" so as to encourage developing countries to actively address climate change. "Green Aid" includes: utilization of ODA and private-based cooperation in the field of energy and environment; human resources development; enabling environment to improve capabilities; and information exchange, such as an inventory of energy-saving technologies.

C. Implementation of the GREEN Initiative

The GREEN Initiative will be implemented through bilateral and multilateral cooperation, and through international organizations, including the International Energy Agency (IEA). The Private sector is expected to play an important role in implementing the GREEN Initiative.

3. Prevention of Oil Spills

In light of the oil spill from the Russian registered tanker Nakhodka in January 1997, Japan proposes measures to prevent the recurrence of such incidents, such as: 1) ratification of relevant international conventions on oil spills; 2) promotion of regional cooperation to prevent oil spills, e.g., the Northwest Pacific Action Plan (NOWPAP); and 3) the enhancement of port state controls for older vessels and a review of standards for such vessels through the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

[Relevant Information]

Japanese Approaches for Global Environmental Problems

III. Initiatives for Development and Africa

1. Steady Implementation of the New Development Strategy

In order to put into action the New Global Partnership for Development welcomed at the Lyon Summit in 1996, Japan is strengthening policy dialogue with developing countries while at the same time calling upon the donor nations (including new donor nations) and international organizations to coordinate assistance in the recipient countries, and to promote south-south (interregional) cooperation. Concrete results have been achieved in certain African countries, including Tanzania and Ethiopia.

2. Human Resource Development: International Network of Educational and Research Organizations Concerned with Development in Africa

Recognizing the importance of human and institutional capacity building in Africa in achieving African development, Japan proposes that consideration be given to creating an international network as a means to increasing cooperation among research institutions around the world for human resource development necessary for African development.

3. International Conference on South-South Cooperation

Recognizing that it is important for resources to flow from new donor countries, especially from Asian countries, and that development experiences must be shared and technology transferred if African development is to succeed, the Second Asia-Africa Forum was held in Bangkok this month with the participation of countries of Asia and Africa, donor countries and related international organizations. In addition, with a view to promoting a global partnership in the New Development Strategy, Japan will host the International Conference on South-South Cooperation in Okinawa in 1998, inviting senior officials from the governments of new donor countries actively involved in south-south cooperation, especially inter-regional cooperation between Asia and Africa.

4. The Second Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD II)

In 1993 Japan cohosted the first Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD I) with the United Nations and the Global Coalition for Africa, where the Tokyo Declaration was adopted. The year 1998 will mark the passing of five years since TICAD I, and Japan intends to host the Second Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD II) in order to conduct a review of the state of progress under the Tokyo Declaration and to strive for concrete results, bearing in mind the basic concepts of the New Development Strategy. A preparatory meeting is scheduled in November 1997 and Japan calls on the Summit participants to actively participate in and contribute to the meeting.

5. Promotion of Private-Sector Participation in Infrastructure Development

At the World Bank/IMF meetings held in autumn 1996, Japan proposed that the World Bank Group study how it might better contribute to the promotion of private capital flows for infrastructure development in emerging economies in Asia and elsewhere. In response, at the World Bank/IMF meetings scheduled in Hong Kong in September, the World Bank is scheduled to report on measures including the use of guarantee functions of the World Bank group, which would promote the flow of private capital.

6. Okinawa Conference on New Development Strategy

Since the Tokyo Summit of 1993, Japan has proposed a New Global Partnership in which industrialized countries and developing countries cooperate for development. In order to further advance discussions on the New Development Strategy in the United Nations, Japan will host the Okinawa Conference on New Development Strategy in Okinawa at the end of July 1997. This meeting will be organized as part of the preparation process for TICAD II.

IV. Counterterrorism Initiatives

To strengthen Counterterrorism Measures with a Focus on Hostage Incidents Based on the lessons of the seizure of the Ambassador's Residence in Lima, it is important to adopt the following counterterrorism measures, with a focus on measures against hostage-taking.

A. Cooperation to Enhance Capacity to Cope with Hostage Taking

Japan proposes the advancement of cooperation on enhancing capacity to cope with hostage taking among the Summit participants, basically on a bilateral basis. Japan, advancing cooperation with other countries, intends to increase the capacities of the Special Assault Team in the police authorities by improving its equipment and material and implementing practical training.

B. Promotion of Information Exchange

Japan proposes that the Summit participants promote information exchange among their diplomatic missions in countries where the threat of terrorism exists.

C. Promotion of Regional Cooperation

In order to increase the effectiveness of counterterrorism measures, it is important to advance regional cooperation including developing countries. The Summit participants should play an active role in their own regions.

Japan has been making efforts to advance regional cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. In December 1996 Japan hosted the Tokyo Asia-Pacific Counterterrorism Seminar.

Furthermore, in order to enhance cooperation with ASEAN countries on counterterrorism measures, a network for counterterrorism has recently been established between Japan and the ASEAN nations. Japan plans to hold the Japan-ASEAN Counterterrorism Conference in autumn 1998, inviting high-level officials in charge of terrorism from the ASEAN nations.

V. Other Initiatives

1. Kobe Conference on Employment

In light of the results of the March 1994 Detroit G-7 Jobs Conference and the April 1996 Lille G-7 Jobs Conference, Japan will host an international conference on employment in Kobe in autumn 1997 with the participation of the G-7 members and the presence of international organizations and others as observers. Discussion at this conference is scheduled to focus on: 1) employment of young people; 2) corporate and individual strategies for responding to structural changes; and 3) discussions on employment of the elderly. A preparatory meeting for this conference was held in April 1997.

2. Tokyo Dialogue on Promoting Financial Stability in Asian Emerging Market Economies

Based on the outcomes of the Lyon Summit, there have been discussions on promoting the stability of the financial system in emerging market economies. In order to enhance active participation of emerging market economies in that process and to provide a venue for their dialogue with relevant international organizations, such as the International Monetary Fund, a seminar will be held in Tokyo, inviting high-level officials from those countries and international organizations.

3. Strengthening Anti Money Laundering Measures in the Asia-Pacific Region

At the Third Asia-Pacific Money Laundering Symposium held in Tokyo in December 1995, agreement was reached to establish the Asia-Pacific Group on Money Laundering in order to further promote measures to prevent money laundering in the Asia-Pacific region. In February 1997, this group was officially launched with the participation of 13 countries. Japan is considering holding the second meeting of that group during this fiscal year. Japan continues its positive contribution to strengthen anti-money laundering measures.

4. Tokyo Conference on Nuclear Safety in Asia

At the Moscow Summit on Nuclear Safety and Security held in April 1996, Japan proposed the holding of the Tokyo Conference on Nuclear Safety in Asia, which took place in November 1996 with the participation of nine Asian countries and attendance of the G-7, Russia and international organizations as observers. As a result of that conference, a chairman's summary was adopted which includes: confirmation of the principles of nuclear safety, a call for participation in an international framework on nuclear safety, and promotion of regional cooperation. The next conference is scheduled in autumn 1997 hosted by the Republic of Korea, where Japan intends to continue its positive contribution.

5. Disarmament and Non-Proliferation

Japan has completed parliamentary approval procedure of the Comprehensive Test-Ban Treaty and the procedures to ratify the Protocol to Treaty to Ban Certain Conventional Weapons on Anti-Personnel Landmines, Boobing Traps and Other Devises. In addition, following the 1996 Lyon Summit, Japan endeavors to realize a universal and practical international treaty. Furthermore, in such areas as the United Nations Register of Conventional Weapons and the transfer of small arms, where Japan has long displayed leadership, Japan is calling for more active exchanges of opinions at the experts level.

6. Tokyo Conference on Anti-Personnel Landmines

In March 1996 Japan hosted the Tokyo Conference on Anti-Personnel Landmines, which focused on provision of humanitarian assistance for landmine clearance activities, the development of related technologies and assistance to the victims of landmines. Japan intends to actively promote the guidelines developed at this conference in these areas.

7. Transnational Crime

In the Lyon Group (Experts Meeting on Transnational Organized Crime), Japan served as the chair of the subgroup on preventing illegal transactions in weapons by organized crime, which achieved important results, such as an agreement to enhance cooperation among the law enforcement agencies of the Eight. Based on the achievements toward the implementation of the 40 recommendations adopted at the Lyon Summit, Japan is calling on other Summit participants to work to spread the framework to other countries.