"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] G8 Counter-Terrorism Cooperation since September 11 Backgrounder

[Place] Kananaskis
[Date] June 26, 2002
[Source] http://www.g8.gc.ca/menu-e.asp
[Full text]

A common commitment to fight terrorism

- In a statement issued last September 19th, G8 Leaders:

-- condemned the September 11th attacks;

-- underscored their determination to bring to justice the perpetrators, to combat all forms of terrorism, to prevent further attacks, and to strengthen international cooperation;

-- called for rapid implementation of the 12 UN counter terrorism conventions; and

-- asked all relevant Ministers to identify and implement specific measures to enhance counter terrorism cooperation in a range of key areas.

In response to this statement, G8 Justice and Interior Ministers, G8 Foreign Affairs Ministers and G7 Finance Ministers have respectively developed and are implementing the following measures, including through cooperation in the Roma and Lyon Groups of G8 experts in counter-terrorism and crime.

Global efforts for a global response

- A key priority for the G8 is the global implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1373, unanimously adopted on September 28, 2001, and of the 12 UN counter terrorism conventions, which set the standard for international action:

-- to prevent and combat terrorist acts such as bombing, hijacking and hostage-taking;

-- to prevent and combat terrorist financing, recruitment, and supply of weapons; and

-- to extradite or prosecute terrorists and deny them safe haven.

- G8 members are implementing Resolution 1373 and have amended domestic legislation where necessary to ensure compliance. All G8 members have reported on their implementation status to the UN Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee, as required under Resolution 1373.

- The G8 is working closely with the UN Counter-Terrorism Committee to address the global threat of international terrorism by monitoring and promoting the implementation of Resolution 1373.

- G8 members are providing technical and legal assistance to third countries for training and capacity building in the areas covered by Resolution 1373, through international framework such as regional institutions, in cooperation with the UN Counter-Terrorism Committee.

- The G8 has developed the G8 Recommendations on Counter-Terrorism, a series of principles and priorities that provide guidance to strengthen capacities to combat terrorism, by improving existing mechanisms, procedures and networks to protect societies from terrorist threats.

- G8 members are implementing the 12 UN counter terrorism conventions and continue to work within the UN to reach consensus on the UN Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism and to finalize the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism.

Rooting out terrorists and their networks

Cutting off funds from terrorists

Money is the lifeblood of terrorists. Cutting off the means of financing their activities is a central focus of G7/G8 efforts to combat terrorism.

- The G7 Finance Ministers' October 2001 Action Plan, endorsed by Russia, advanced these efforts by identifying priorities and calling for specific measures to:

-- immediately freeze assets of terrorists so as to deprive them of their funds; and rapidly develop and implement international standards to prevent the abuse of the financial system by terrorists.

- Since September 11, some US$116 million have been frozen worldwide and over 160 countries and jurisdictions have taken action to freeze terrorist assets.

- G8 members all have the legal capabilities to freeze terrorist assets and have worked together to improve the coordination and effectiveness of sanctions against such assets. They are designating points of contact to share information with sufficient advance notification to ensure simultaneous actions to freeze terrorist assets. They are also taking measures to seize frozen assets to deprive terrorists permanently of their funds.

- The UN has listed 293 individuals and entities whose financial assets must be frozen by UN member countries. G8 members have also identified and listed terrorists for the purpose of applying sanctions. A joint G7 identification of terrorist entities and individuals was announced on April 19, 2002, and their assets were frozen in coordination in all G7 countries.

- As called for by G7 Finance Ministers, and endorsed by Russia, the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering (FATF) adopted eight special recommendations against terrorist financing and set out an ambitious plan of action to encourage their rapid implementation by member and non-member countries. G8 members are implementing these recommendations.

- G8 members are implementing the 1999 International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism. Since September 11, over 100 countries have signed, or ratified, the Convention. The Convention came into force on April 10, 2002.

Cutting off the means of communication for planning terrorist attacks

The Internet has been used by terrorists to communicate and plan attacks. Disrupting their communication networks has also been an important part of G8 efforts.

- The G8 has developed recommendations for tracing networked communications that will assist police and national security agencies in rapidly locating and identifying criminals and terrorists who use international communication networks for illegal purposes.

- The G8 has developed a set of principles that will assist governments in developing policies to promote the availability of communication data, while balancing the privacy concerns of the public and the interests of communication industries.

- The G8 has established a network of experienced contacts that are available around the clock to cooperate in high-tech criminal and terrorism investigations. It has expanded the network from 16 to 28 participating countries since September 11.

Cutting off terrorist networks in Afghanistan

The establishment of a secure environment in Afghanistan is key to its political stability and reconstruction and to the fight against terrorism.

- G8 members have played leading roles in the global campaign against terrorism, including military action against Al Qaeda and the Taliban and efforts to create the conditions for stability and democracy to take root in Afghanistan. G8 members have succeeded in destroying major parts of the Al Qaeda and the Taliban infrastructure, have denied ground to the terrorists and have destroyed extensive quantities of explosives, arms and ammunition. In addition, those countries involved in the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) have made a highly significant contribution to the maintenance of peace and stability in and around Kabul.

- G8 members committed significant contributions at the International Conference on Reconstruction Assistance to Afghanistan in Tokyo on January 21-22, where a cumulative total of about US $4.5 billion was pledged.

- G8 members are working closely with the Transitional Authority of Afghanistan and other donors and are taking leadership roles to define strategies and marshal resources in the security sector. Key areas are the establishment and training of a national army and police forces, an assessment of needs in the judicial sector, the demobilization of combatants and their reintegration into local communities, the elimination of the threat of landmines and the eradication of the opium crop.

- The G8 is helping the Transitional Authority of Afghanistan implement their program to eradicate this year's opium crop and have succeeded so far in destroying between 20% and 25% of the current crop. G8 members cooperated closely with the United Nations Drugs Control Programme (UNDCP) which was active in establishing counter-drug "security belts" around Afghanistan designed to curb narcotics trafficking emanating from that country.

Reducing the threat of terrorist attacks

Improving the safety of travel

- G8 members have been implementing new standards to ensure the safety of travel for their citizens. G8 airlines have tight new security standards, performance-tested daily.

G8 members are providing substantial new voluntary contributions to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), particularly to its aviation security program. These contributions help ensure compliance with international standards and develop new safeguards to protect travellers.

Ensuring terrorists will find no sanctuary

Restricting the movements of terrorists and criminals and preventing them from exploiting immigration procedures and asylum systems is a common objective of the G8.

- The G8 is promoting improvements to global standards and using new technologies to ensure travel and identity document security. This will assist in preventing terrorists from travelling illegally and disguising their identities.

- The G8 is sharing best practices for improving border controls and for intercepting terrorists and criminals before they arrive at borders. G8 members are assisting other countries to improve their control measures.

- National laws that complement international conventions are improving the exchange of evidence and making it easier to successfully prosecute or extradite terrorists. G8 officials from security and intelligence services also share best practices on specific threats and terrorist groups.

Assessing terrorist threats and being prepared for the unexpected

- G8 members are sharing information and coordinating their activities to identify potential links between terrorist groups and criminal activities such as drug trafficking, smuggling of migrants, travel document fraud, illicit trafficking in firearms and money laundering.

- The G8 Recommendations on Transnational Crime have been updated to reflect the most recent analysis of investigative techniques, laws and cooperation tools that should be developed internationally to protect societies from transnational crime and terrorist threats.

- G8 members are strengthening information and intelligence exchange to achieve improved assessment of potential chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear terrorist threats.

- The G8 has agreed to undertake work on consequence management with regard to incidents involving industrial plants and transportation of toxic agents, as well as simulation training exercises. Work is also underway with the World Health Organization (WHO) to strengthen global health security against threats from chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear agents.

- G8 members are sharing information on national capacities and techniques to respond in the case of terrorist incidents involving chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons. G8 experts developed best practices to respond to chemical and biological incidents and are considering best practices to respond to radiological and nuclear incidents.