"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] Report on the G8 Global Partnership (G8 Heiligendamm Summit)

[Place] Heiligendamm
[Date] June 8, 2007
[Source] G8 Heiligendamm Summit Official Site
[Full text]

We reaffirm our commitment to the Global Partnership against the Proliferation of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction as set out in the 2002 Kananaskis G8 Summit documents. Since 2002, the Global Partnership has become a large-scale international initiative which has contributed to the enhancement of international security and stability.

The past year has witnessed continuing progress in turning initial pledges into projects and activities. The destruction of chemical weapons, dismantlement of decommissioned nuclear submarines, the disposition of fissile materials and the employment of former weapons scientists were identified as priorities at Kananaskis. We reaffirm our commitment to support priority projects under this initiative, initially in Russia.

Chemical Weapons Destruction

International assistance in the construction of chemical weapons destruction facilities was recognized at Kananaskis as a key requirement to help Russia to eliminate its stockpiles of chemical weapons, pursuant to its obligations under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC).

Two chemical weapons destruction facilities have been built with international assistance. The facility at Gorny, operated from 2002-2005 and destroyed all 1142 tons of chemical weapons stored at this facility. Assistance was provided by the EU, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands and Poland. The facility at Kambarka has become operational by the end of December, 2005 and destroyed until now appr. 3.200 t. It has been built with assistance of the EU, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and Switzerland.

Work has also advanced on the construction of the facility at Shchuch'ye, involving Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, the EU, France, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the UK and the US. This facility is scheduled to become operational in 2008. Germany, Italy and Switzerland will provide assistance for the construction of the chemical weapons destruction facility at Pochep. Switzerland will also provide assistance for the construction of facility at Leonidovka and has already provided funds for the facility at Maradykovsky. Canada and the UK have committed funds for the construction of the facility at Kizner.

Dismantlement of Nuclear Submarines and Related Work

Dismantlement of nuclear submarines withdrawn from the Russian Navy is another priority area identified at Kananaskis. This is a complex activity, including transport of the submarines, defuelling, dismantlement and safe storage of the reactor compartments.

Substantial progress has been made since 2002, with 69 submarines dismantled, including 21 with foreign assistance from Canada, Japan, Norway, the UK and the US. The activities have mainly taken place in the North West of Russia while they have also taken place in the Russian Far East.

In addition to the dismantlement of submarines, the Global Partnership projects also addressed the development of infrastructure to ensure nuclear material from the dismantlement process is made safe and secure. Key projects underway include: the German-financed construction of a land based long-term interim storage facility at Sayda Bay which became operational in July 2006. In the second phase of the GP this project will be extended with the construction of a radioactive waste management and storage facility at Sayda Bay. The rehabilitation of the temporary storage facility for spent nuclear fuel at Andreeva Bay funded by the Norway, Sweden and the UK; the launching of the rehabilitation of Gremikha former naval base funded by the EU, France and the EBRD; refitting of the nuclear waste incinerator in Zvezdochka shipyard funded by France; a multi-use naval vessel for the transport of nuclear (and related) materials funded by Italy; and a Spent Nuclear Fuel storage facility at the Atomflot site, Murmansk funded by the UK. Canada funded environmental improvements at Zvezdochka.

The parties continue to use successfully the Framework Agreement on a Multilateral Nuclear Environment Programme in the Russian Federation, which provided the basis for the implementation of the Northern Dimensional Environmental Programme's (NDEP) "Nuclear Window", that includes a number of nuclear multilateral and bilateral projects, such as rehabilitation programmes at Gremikha funded by France, the NDEP and the EU.

Disposition of Fissile Material

In 2000, the US and the Russian Federation agreed to each convert 34 tonnes of weapons-grade plutonium designated as no longer required for defence programmes into forms not useable for weapons. As a number of countries have put aside funds for this purpose, it is hoped that the outstanding issues will be resolved to enable this important activity to commence.

Employment of Former Weapons Scientists

Since 2002 more than 1400 research projects have been funded through the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) in Russia and the Science and Technology Center in Ukraine (STCU) by Canada, members of the EU, Japan (only ISTC), and other countries, involving more than 17,000 former weapons scientists. In particular, several donors are engaged in projects outside Russia concerning the response to biological threat. In the coming year, the funding parties will analyse the activities and ways to improve further the effectiveness of the two Centers. On a bilateral basis, France has conducted a feasibility study in order to define a new way of cooperation in this area.

In addition, a number of countries have created sustainable job opportunities for former weapons scientists and engineers outside the ISTC/STCU framework.

Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials

The G8 Gleneagles Statement and the Sea Island G8 Action Plan on Non-Proliferation highlighted the importance of addressing the security of nuclear materials, equipment and technology as well as radioactive sources.

A number of donors have now established programmes with Russia and Ukraine to upgrade the physical protection of and account for nuclear materials. These include Canada, the EU, Germany, Norway, Sweden, the UK and the US.

There is also increasing cooperation among those engaged in securing radiological sources. A number of donors, including Canada, Denmark, France, Norway, the US and the Nordic Environmental Finance Corporation (NEFCO) are supporting dismantling, storing and replacing some 700 highly radioactive radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs) which have been used to power Russian lighthouses. With Canadian assistance, a Russian "RTG Master Plan" has been developed and efforts are under way to increase co-ordination among participating countries.

Global Partnership countries are also cooperating in other spheres. The US is cooperating with Russia and Ukraine on the dismantlement of strategic weapons systems, and enhancing the security of weapons transportation and storage. Some bio-security projects are being implemented by several Global Partnership members.

The US and Russia, with additional financial support from several other countries, are co-operating on the construction of fossil fuel power plants that, when completed, will allow the permanent closure of the three remaining Russian reactors that are producing weapon-grade plutonium. Canada, Finland, the Netherlands, New Zealand and the UK have also contributed funds to support these projects.

In Ukraine, a further step towards nuclear safety has been made with the replenishment of the Chernobyl Shelter Fund providing the necessary financial resources for completion of the new shelter. A number of donors are engaged in projects with Ukraine to enhance export control and border security systems to help prevent the illicit trafficking in WMD across national borders.

2007 Mid-Term Review & Assessment

To provide a clear picture of what remains to be done, the 2006 GP Annual Report called for a review of the GP and its work at this mid-point of its lifespan. The GP partners, non-government organizations and scientists thoroughly assessed the main achievements, lessons learned and priorities of the GP. The conclusions and recommendations were laid down in the Mid-Term Review and brought to the attention of the summit in Heiligendamm.