"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] Report to G8 Summit Leaders from the G8 Experts on International Terrorism and Transnational Organized Crime (G8 Toyako Summit)

[Place] Toyako, Hokkaido
[Date] July 8, 2008
[Source] Toyoko Summit Official Site
[Full text]


International terrorism is among the most serious threats to international peace and security, as recognized by the G8 Leaders in their condemnation of terrorist acts and their unified commitment to fighting terrorism. Transnational organized crime, likewise, is a serious concern of G8 Leaders and resolute actions are being taken within the G8 to combat illicit criminal activities across borders. Herein, we, the G8 experts on international terrorism and transnational organized crime of the G8 Roma/Lyon Group, submit a report to G8 Leaders on our efforts and actions to fight terrorism and transnational organized crime.

I. Support for UN Counter-Terrorism Efforts

We reaffirm our support for the central role of the United Nations in the international fight against terrorism. We emphasize the significance of the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2006 and resolve to continue efforts to implement this Strategy, supporting the work of the Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force (CTITF). We will work to ensure that the planned review of the Strategy this fall will provide new momentum toward its solid implementation.

It is essential that UN Member States uphold their obligations to implement all Security Council resolutions related to international terrorism. We deeply appreciate the efforts of the 1267 Committee and the Counter-Terrorism Committee (CTC) toward this end.

We call on all UN Member States to become parties to the existing international conventions and protocols against terrorism and to realize their full implementation. In this context, we welcome the entry into force of the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, which is the thirteenth major legal instrument on international counter-terrorism, and encourage all UN Member States to become parties to the Convention. We also call on all parties to exert maximum efforts toward the conclusion of the draft UN Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism, in a manner that will strengthen international resolution that no cause or grievance justifies terrorism in any form.

In order to assist Member States in the implementation of UN measures against terrorism, the G8 has been cooperating with the UN and its organs and bodies, including the Counter-Terrorism Executive Directorate (CTED) and the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). We are further committed to strengthening this cooperation through the actions of the Counter-Terrorism Action Group (CTAG).

II. Countering New Threats and Diversified Methods

1. Abuse of Modern Information and Communication Technology

Terrorists and criminal groups are able to use modern information and communication technology maliciously, for purposes such as communication, information gathering, recruitment and the spread of violent radicalism. This technology is also subject to abuse by organized crime, which can use it for sophisticated and diverse methods including the illicit trade of controlled substance pharmaceuticals and counterfeit medicines as well as the offering of child pornography.

We are firmly committed to identifying such illicit trends and working to detect and disrupt the use of modern technology by terrorists and criminals. Making the best and fullest use of our results, we will seek effective international cooperation while respecting the differences in national legal systems.

We have also built, strengthened and trained a 24/7 Network of points of contact for high-tech crime. Today, the network includes fifty countries and law enforcement jurisdictions from around the world and we are working to continue to building the network while also enhancing legislative and law enforcement capacity against high-tech crime.

2. The Fight against the Sexual Exploitation of Children

A key achievement of the 2007 G8 Justice and Interior Ministers' Meeting in Munich was a Joint Ministerial Declaration on 'Reinforcing the International Fight against Child Pornography.' We continue to attach great importance to the fight against the sexual exploitation of children and we are currently progressing a portfolio of projects to this end. This portfolio currently includes, inter alia, an international research symposium to assess the risks that the production, exchange and use of child abuse images pose to children and society, the development of a G8 International 'Most Wanted' website, examinations of legal and law enforcement responses to the phenomenon of child abduction, a joint training project for G8 law enforcement in combating online child sexual abuse and ongoing work around the implementation of the INTERPOL Child Abuse Image Database, which the G8 helped create.

We are committed in our continuing efforts to combat this phenomenon in order to protect children from sexual exploitation and bring to justice those who perpetrate these crimes.

3. Border Control and Identity-related Crime

We have been making efforts to advance and implement measures to tighten the screening of identification and travel documents. Noting that such measures have helped to reinforce border control and restrict terrorist and criminal financing, we will continue to identify and share best practices to prevent the forgery and illegal use of identification and travel documents. We are also studying issues related to the criminal misuse of identification information as well as developing strategies to counter the many modes of this criminal activity such as skimming and impersonation fraud.

We have also addressed the removal of persons with a terrorist background from the national territory, which requires provisions that facilitate deportation

or other lawful removal procedures in accordance with obligations under domestic and international law. We have taken stock and evaluation of legal situation in the member states and discussed difficulties and possible solutions for deporting terrorist suspects.

4. Transport Security

Attacks in recent years demonstrate that terrorists seek to target mass transportation systems. Although some attacks have been prevented, others have been carried out causing serious damage and many casualties.

The G8 has been playing a leading role in improving transport security and it continues to study and develop effective measures to enhance security in the field of aviation security, maritime and port security as well as land transport security. Results are shared within the G8 and relevant international organizations. We note with appreciation the activities of the International Working Group on Land Transport Security and work in close cooperation with the Group.

5. Critical Infrastructure

The G8 Leaders at the Heiligendamm Summit committed to assessing the vulnerabilities of and potential risks to critical energy infrastructure and to share best practices of effective security responses. Following from this commitment, we have evaluated threats to critical energy infrastructure and shared best practices to protect related facilities. We have also shared best practices regarding public-private cooperation on protecting international critical information infrastructure. Going forward, we will further strengthen the protection of critical infrastructure based on the results of the above studies and efforts.

6. CBRN Terrorism

The possibility that terrorists will resort to Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) methods in staging attacks remains. Mindful that such events could result in large numbers of casualties and extensive damage, G8 member states have been taking measures to address the threat of CBRN terrorism and G8 experts are advancing studies on how to recover from a CBRN event. The G8 emphasizes the importance of implementing international instruments to prevent nuclear terrorism such as the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and its 2005 Amendment and the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism.

7. Countering Cash Smuggling Used to Finance Terrorism

Besides taking strict measures to combat terrorist financing, we address the problems of bulk cash smuggling, as called for in the International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism and the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) Special Recommendation IX. At the Heiligendamm Summit, G8 Leaders agreed to further strengthen efforts to combat informal methods of illicit money transfers across borders for terrorist or other criminal purposes. In line with this commitment, we have shared information on our programs and enforcement efforts, evaluated threats, and identified transshipment points and nodes. We are resolved to continue sharing relevant information and working on measures to stem the flow of bulk cash smuggling by conducting joint exercises and coordinating capacity building assistance programs.

III. Capacity Building

In a globalized world, characterized by massive flows of people, goods, money, and information, terrorist and criminal organizations exploiting deficiencies in one country pose a threat not only to that country but also to others. The limited capacity of some countries in law enforcement and gaps in legislative frameworks and other areas generate loopholes in overall international efforts to counter terrorism and transnational organized crime.

G8 member states are therefore extending support, multilaterally and bilaterally, to countries requiring capacity building assistance in a number of areas such as law enforcement as well as law and order to counter terrorism and transnational organized crime. In cooperation with the UNODC and other relevant UN organs and bodies, we are encouraging and supporting all countries to become parties to the international legal instruments against terrorism and crime and to prepare the necessary domestic legislation to ratify and implement such instruments, including the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC) and its additional protocols.

We are taking steps to strengthen practical and efficient coordination with the CTC/CTED and other relevant UN organs and bodies through the CTAG, thereby further contributing to capacity building in countries requiring assistance in the international fight against terrorism.

IV. Afghanistan and Pakistan Border Control

Further to the Statement of the G8 Heiligendamm Summit, we have exchanged information on assistance projects to strengthen border control in the Afghanistan and Pakistan border region, and have coordinated such projects through the CTAG. The G8, working with relevant countries, international organizations and the Governments of Afghanistan and Pakistan, resolves to closely cooperate so as to make border control in the Afghanistan and Pakistan border region more effective and efficient.

V. Counter-radicalization

Counter-radicalization, including the prevention of radicalization leading to violence, is critically important for curbing and stopping terrorism. We make every efforts to effectively prevent the spread of extremist ideology that intensifies hatred and promotes violence.

We are conducting a series of studies to measure and better understand the latest developments in violent extremism, the cause and process of radicalization, the abuse of the Internet for radicalization and related occurrences and trends. On the basis of these studies, we are giving full consideration to counter-radicalization measures.

As part of our counter-radicalization efforts, it is essential to promote respect for diversity and to foster environments that undermine extremist ideology leading to violence. At the same time, we must not forget the significance of continuously addressing the political, economic and social conditions that are exploited for the purpose of supporting and spreading terrorism.

VI. Engaging Private Sector Partners

We reconfirm the importance of cooperation with private sector partners, regional communities, civil society and other non-governmental organizations in the fight against terrorism. We also recognize the value of cooperative relationships with private sector partners in implementing projects involving the communication industry and critical infrastructure as well as the role of communities and non-government organizations in fostering social integration that helps prevent radicalization leading to violence.

VII. Fight against Corruption

At the Heiligendamm Summit, G8 Leaders pledged to intensify common efforts to effectively combat corruption worldwide.

We continue to discuss appropriate measures in the pursuit of the effective implementation of the UN Convention Against Corruption by all the Member States.

VIII. Respecting Human Rights in Countering Terrorism

We underscore the importance of ensuring human rights and the rule of law in implementing counter-terrorism measures. Any actions taken to fight against terrorism should comply with states' obligation under international law, in particular international human rights law, international refugee law and international humanitarian law.