"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] G7 HIROSHIMA PROGRESS REPORT: Advancing Resilience in Times of Crises : Food Security and Nutrition, Migration and Refugees

[Date] May 2023
[Source] Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
[Full text]

Executive Summary

G7 leaders committed to enhancing global food security and nutrition, including at Elmau in 2015 and 2022, at Taormina in 2017, and to supporting refugees and migrants at Ise-Shima in 2016. In 2023, in view of Russiaʼs ongoing war of aggression against Ukraine, these priorities have only increased in importance. We reaffirm our unwavering support for Ukraine for as long as it takes and condemn Russia's illegal, unjustifiable, and unprovoked war, disregard for the Charter of the United Nations (UN) and indifference to the impacts that its war is having on people worldwide.

As the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2 states, efforts toward food security and nutrition are necessary to help all who suffer from hunger and malnutrition access safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round. Transforming agricultural and food systems towards sustainability and resilience is key for achieving the SDGs—including increased sustainable agriculture, food production, and access to critical inputs such as seeds and fertilizer, improved global supply chains, and decreased

food loss and waste—especially as the global population continues to grow. Improving nutrition through multisectoral approaches including through increasing access to affordable, safe, and nutritious foods will contribute to tackling all forms of malnutrition, and in particular the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women to prevent long-term issues that may be triggered by stunted physical and cognitive growth.

In 2015, the G7 decided to "lift 500 million people in developing countries out of hunger and malnutrition by 2030" by contributing to the SDGs. To support this commitment, the G7 also decided to collectively support dynamic rural transformations, take multisectoral approaches to improve food and nutrition security, implement responsible investment and sustainable agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa, and safeguard food security and nutrition amidst conflicts and crises.

As the SDG principle of "leaving no one behind" indicates, challenges faced by refugees and migrants cannot be overlooked. Large-scale refugee movements and protracted refugee situations persist around the world due to violence, armed conflicts, environmental degradation, climate change and natural disasters. The international community stands ready to continue to address these challenges.

At the 2016 Ise-Shima Summit, the G7 committed to increasing global assistance to meet the needs of refugees and other displaced persons as well as the host communities. While working with partner countries to strengthen development cooperation, the G7 continues to provide humanitarian, financial, and development assistance and cooperation tailored to short- and long-term needs.

Despite the G7's efforts, the food and nutrition crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the climate crisis, and existing conflicts has been further exacerbated by Russiaʼs war of aggression against Ukraine. Food security, poverty, and nutrition trends are moving in the wrong direction and reversing decades of progress in the fight against hunger. At the 2022 Elmau Summit, the G7 decided to establish the Global Alliance for Food Security (GAFS) supported by the World Bank Group to provide a targeted response to the food insecurity and malnutrition crises caused by the war and to protect those in the most vulnerable situations. The G7 also contributed an additional USD 4.5 billion to protect the most vulnerable from hunger and malnutrition, amounting to a joint commitment of over USD 14 billion for global food security in 2022.

The war has led to a sharp increase in the number of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs)—one of the highest since the Second World War—within and from Ukraine, and its neighboring countries. The G7, through its statement on Support for Ukraine, recognized the need to support these people by providing short- and medium-term assistance as well as securing equitable access to a range of support services.

In light of the given circumstances, the G7 Hiroshima Progress Report reviewed progress on commitments related to food security and

nutrition as well as migration and refugees, who are particularly affected by the consequences of the global crisis.

G7 members have acted collectively and individually to meet these commitments, with progress measured by a set of indicators as agreed by the G7 Accountability Working Group. Case studies throughout the report capture the efforts made by each member.

Overall, G7 members have made considerable investments in addressing the aforementioned challenges, including those which were announced at the successful Tokyo Nutrition for Growth (N4G) Summit in 2021. Yet much remains to be done since the war caused global hardships, a rise in global food, energy, fuel, and fertilizer prices; and many people are still being forced to flee from their homes and their lives remain at risk. The G7 stands ready to continue addressing the impact of food insecurity and malnutrition, particularly for people in the most vulnerable circumstances.


G7 Accountability Working Group

Accountability and transparency are core principles of the G7 that maintain the credibility of G7 leaders' decisions. At the Heiligendamm Summit in 2007, G8 countries agreed to the idea of building an accountability system. At the L'Aquila Summit in 2009, the leaders decided to establish an accountability mechanism and adopted the terms of reference of the G7 Accountability Working Group (AWG) as well as a preliminary accountability report.

AWG reports contain the results of the assessment on the progress of development and development- related commitments made at G7 Summits and communicate progress to G7 leaders. The AWG monitors and assesses all active commitments every three years. In the interim years, the G7 publishes a report on commitments belonging to specific sectors or themes.

This accountability mechanism enables citizens and civil society of G7 countries and other countries to monitor what the G7 has committed to and achieved in order to hold G7 governments accountable.

The AWG draws on the knowledge of relevant sectoral experts, and its reports provide qualitative and quantitative information. Since the mechanism was established, five Comprehensive Progress Reports, Muskoka (2010), Lough Erne (2013), Ise- Shima (2016), Biarritz (2019) and Elmau (2022), that assess all commitments were published. In addition, six thematic reports were published and reported the progress of specific G7 commitments, which were Deauville (2011) on Health and Food Security; Camp David (2012) on Food Security, Markets and Trade, Nutrition, and Global Health; Elmau (2015) on Biodiversity; Taormina (2017) on Global Partnership for Education; Charlevoix (2018) on Economic Empowerment of Women; and Carbis Bay (2021) on Universal Health Coverage and Global Health.

G7 Hiroshima Progress Report 2023

The G7 Hiroshima Progress Report 2023 is the seventh thematic report, succeeding the Elmau Progress Report 2022.

More than a year has passed since the start of Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine. It has triggered disruptions in the agricultural production of affected areas, related supply chains and agricultural trade that have driven global food, fertilizer and energy prices to unprecedented levels. This has dramatically exacerbated an already strained global food security and nutrition situation. The G7 are very concerned about the war's global impact on the rise in global food insecurity and malnutrition, poverty and other inequalities including gender inequality, dire health condition, climate change and notably its impact on countries affected by pre-existing humanitarian crises.

Over 13 million people*1* are displaced from their homes, including over 8 million refugees*2* who have fled Ukraine to neighboring countries. The G7 will enhance our support through provision for all short- and medium-term assistance, as well as strengthening access to a range of support services for those displaced and affected both in Ukraine and in other host countries with specific attention to women and girls.

Given the global impact of this war, this Progress Report reviews progress against existing G7 commitments focusing on food security and nutrition*3* as well as migration and refugees.

{*1* UNHCR (2023). UNHCR: One year after the Russian invasion, insecurity clouds return intentions of displaced Ukrainians. Retrieved from


{*2* UNHCR Regional Bureau for Europe (2023). Ukraine Situation Flash Update #44. Retrieved from https://data.unhcr.org/en/documents/details/100004}

{*3* Further detail on the Broad G7 Food Security Commitment to lift 500 million people out of food insecurity by 2030, as set out in the Annex to the G7 2015 Elmau Communiqué will be reported as usual in the annual G7 “Food Security Working Group Financial Report on Food Security and Nutrition” later.}


Russia's War of Aggression against Ukraine and G7 Development-Related Commitments

The global community is threatened by the compounding impacts of conflict, environmental degradation, climate change, biodiversity loss, economic decline and poverty, discrimination, food insecurity and malnutrition, lack of access to quality essential and primary health services, energy insecurity, gender inequalities and gender-based violence (GBV), and the COVID-19 pandemic.

Russia's unjust and unprovoked war of aggression against Ukraine started in February 2022. It has adversely affected the entire global food supply chain and has negatively impacted efforts towards strengthening the world's economic recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic and addressing climate impacts such as more frequent and extreme weather events and slow onset processes. By starting a war between two of the world's most significant producers of agricultural commodities and inputs, the Government of the Russian Federation is contributing to rising prices for food and fertilizer across the globe. Russia continues to delay food shipments in the Black Sea, destroy Ukrainian agricultural land and production facilities, and target civilians. While collectively calling for an immediate cessation of its war of aggression, G7 countries have provided assistance to mitigate its global impact.

This chapter will provide an overview of the global impacts of Russia's war and G7's commitments related to development issues mainly focused on global food security and nutrition, migration and refugees, and other social impacts.

1.1 Overview of the Global Impacts by the War in Ukraine

a. World Economy

Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine negatively impacted the world economy. The Russian Federation was the top natural gas exporter in the world, and the second-largest oil exporter.*1* Oil and gas prices had already been increasing due to post COVID-19-lockdown demand beyond supply.*2* The aggression worsened the energy supply situation in the world, resulting in energy price increases and negatively impacting the world economy.

According to the World Economic Outlook Update of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), global economic growth is projected to fall from an estimated 3.4% in 2022 to 2.9% in 2023 (Figure 1-1). Russia's illegal invasion of Ukraine, the rise in central bank rates to fight inflation and the lingering COVID-19 pandemic weighed on the global economic activity in 2022. These factors will continue to influence the global economy in 2023. The IMF's report also states that an escalation of the war in Ukraine remains a major source of vulnerability which could lower economic growth and further exacerbate inflation.*3*

b. Global Food Security and Nutrition

Food insecurity and malnutrition rates were significantly aggravated by Russia's war of aggression. According to the United Nations (UN), Ukraine and Russia provided around 30% of wheat and barley traded globally,*4* 20% of maize,*5* and more than 50% of sunflower oil.6 Russia and neighboring Belarus export nearly 20% of the fertilizer in the world.*7*

Against a backdrop of around 3 billion people lacking access to healthy diets globally,*8* Russia's war has significantly changed the global economic outlook by contributing to sharply rising food, fuel and energy prices. It has driven people towards cheaper and less nutritious food, increasing undernourishment by 7.6 to 13.1 million people in addition to spiking rates due to COVID-19.*9* As shown in the figure, just after Russia's full- scale invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, the food price index of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) surged (Figure 1-2). According to the World Bank, fertilizer prices also increased drastically.*10* The Black Sea Grain Initiative (BSGI) has opened up desperately needed exports from Ukraine's Black Sea ports and helped to bring prices down, but Russia's deliberate slowdown of inspections through the corridor and the resulting backlog may once again contribute to rising grain prices. The world is now facing a worsening state of food insecurity and malnutrition

In this worsening situation where most people are already unable to afford food to keep them healthy, those who are in the most vulnerable situations, including women, children, people with disabilities, and other groups, face increasing obstacles to accessing nutritious food due to rising costs, and confront the risk of hunger and malnutrition.

In addition to a short-term impact on food security and nutrition for which acute hunger and wasting are the most visible and deadly forms, food insecurity and malnutrition may also cause irreversible problems leading to long-term problems. According to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), chronically undernourished children face "an irreversible condition that stunts the physical and cognitive growth of children."*11* Poor nutritional care of the mother before and during pregnancy and for the child, particularly during the first 1,000 days, carries the risk of lifelong effects on the child's physical and mental development. Nutritional issues due to food insecurity brought on by the war in Ukraine may worsen the future of children, hence the future of the world, by hampering human and economic development of countries.

Russia's war of aggression may also disturb our efforts towards the long-term resilience and sustainability of agriculture and food systems. Maintaining such efforts is essential to build the basis of global and regional food and nutrition security as well as to stop unsustainable land- use change and deforestation that contributes to making agricultural and food systems more vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.

c. Migration and Refugees

The number of forcibly displaced populations increased sharply due to Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine. In the middle of 2022, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimated the number of forcibly displaced populations*12* reached 103 million*13* worldwide, the highest figure ever recorded (see Figure 3-1 on page 54).

The number of refugees under UNHCR's mandate had increased constantly to around 20 million people between 2017 and 2021. Solving the root causes of displacement and providing durable solutions have long been significant challenges for the international community. However, Russia's

war has further accelerated the increase in number, displacing over 8 million Ukrainian refugees to date.*14*

Russia's war entailed an immediate response from many countries, international and civil organizations to deal with the arrival of Ukrainian refugees. Through the Elmau G7 Statement on

Support for Ukraine, the G7 agreed to seek means of providing safe passage for refugees, including temporarily facilitating immigration procedures and visa requirements. The longer the aggression

continues, the greater the need for the international community to shift from an emergency response to medium- to long-term support.

The international community has been working on the protection of refugees since the end of the

Second World War. The year 2021 marked the 70th anniversary of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951 Refugee Convention). On that occasion, UNHCR emphasized that recommitment to the spirit and fundamental principles of the Global Compact on Refugees is more urgent than ever.

At the G7 Elmau Summit in June 2022, the commitment to "protecting refugees, supporting forcibly displaced persons and host countries and communities" was reaffirmed. Moreover, G7 members recalled their commitment to the Global

Compact on Refugees to share responsibility more equitably and to promote international solidarity.

d. Other Social Impacts

The war in Ukraine has highlighted the need for a swift supply diversification and energy transition. Disruptions to the trade linkages between Russia, Ukraine and many industrialized economies has had significant impacts and repercussions for the price of key commodities in the energy sector. Many governments seek to secure alternatives to Russian oil and gas; in some cases, coal use is on the rise, leading to rising greenhouse gas emissions. They also aim to reduce demand for fossil fuels by promoting sustainable consumer choices, energy efficiency and faster investments in renewable energy. The net effect on the climate agenda and the transition to renewables is still unknown.*15*

The crisis of Russia's war against Ukraine also threatens women and girls in all their diversity and the other groups in situations of vulnerability. Women and girls in all their diversity are confronted with risks of conflict-related GBV including sexual violence, difficulties to access and exercise their sexual and reproductive health and rights, and basic services such as education, health services and access to decent jobs in the devastating situation of the war. For instance, a survey found that women and girls are more likely to face GBV when facing food insecurity and that such situations oblige some to engage in transactional sex in exchange for food or money to buy food.*16* Concerning access to social services, a rapid gender analysis of Ukraine reported that access to health services in Ukraine is "affected due to mined roads, the lack of medicines and the targeted attacks on health facilities including hospitals and ambulances" and that children's schooling is also affected by the war.*17* It is also worth noting that the war has had devastating impact on women and girls worldwide, widening gender gaps and increasing rates of food insecurity, malnutrition and poverty.*18* G7 countries shared the concerns in the G7 Leaders' Communiqué on June 28, 2022 that the impact of war, conflict, and forced displacement worldwide, "clearly demonstrated that women, girls, and those most vulnerable based on gender identity, sexual orientation, or disability are disproportionately affected, and yet at the same time severely underrepresented in decision making roles."

Russia's war together with the existing crises above worsened the post COVID-19 situation and increased uncertainty about the future of the world. G7 leaders shared their recognition that there is a need to intensify efforts to jointly address challenges of energy security, climate change, just transition, pandemic prevention, preparedness and response (PPR), access to primary health care including comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services and gender equality.

1.2 G7's Commitments Related to Development Issues

a. Theme of the Progress Report

Against the background overview in previous sections, the Progress Report for the G7 Hiroshima 2023 focuses on the G7's response to the consequences of Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine on global food security and nutrition and refugees.

After the outbreak of Russia's war, G7 leaders shared strong concerns about food security and malnutrition worsened by the war and risk of weaponization of food by certain actors and expressed shared determination to address the challenges. In the 2022 Resilient Democracies Statement on June 27, 2022, leaders of G7 and Argentina, India, Indonesia, Senegal and South Africa affirmed their commitment to "improving food security to prevent famine and striving for energy security by ensuring resilient energy supply chains, noting in this context the work of the UN Global Crisis Response Group (GCRG) initiative." In addition, on June 28, 2022, the G7 stated that "G7 leaders will spare no effort to increase global food and nutrition security and to protect the most vulnerable, whom the food crisis threatens to hit the hardest." In the G7 Statement on Global Food

Security, G7 leaders stated that "(...) in strong support of the UN GCRG, we are building the Global Alliance for Food Security (GAFS) jointly with the World Bank as a coordinated and solidarity response to the challenges ahead." This effort will include making the seven lines of efforts outlined in the Roadmap on Global Food Security – Call to Action*19* which highlights the importance of additional financial contributions, maintaining open trade, increasing and diversifying sustainable fertilizer production and efficient use, and working towards meaningful food system transformation.

Also, the G7 shared the need to support refugees and displaced persons as a consequence of the conflict and increase international assistance to countries neighboring Ukraine.

b. Broad Food Security and Nutrition Development (Commitment 18)

At the Elmau Summit in 2015, to contribute to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) adopted by the UN in 2015, G7 countries decided to "aim to lift 500 million people in developing countries out of hunger and malnutrition by 2030." To support this commitment, the G7 adopted a "Broader Food Security and Nutrition Development Approach" in the Annex to the 2015 G7 Leader's Declaration and decided to report annually on the progress made towards food security and nutrition. As the custodian to the Elmau commitment, the G7 Food Security Working Group (FSWG) annually develops the G7 FSWG Financial Report on Food Security and Nutrition, at least until 2030, in order to track the progress against a set of agreed indicators. As part of the 2015 Elmau commitment, G7 leaders committed to strengthen efforts to support dynamic rural transformations, promote responsible investment and sustainable agriculture and foster multisectoral approaches to nutrition, and aim to safeguard food security and nutrition in conflicts and crises. At the Taormina Summit in 2017, G7 leaders decided to raise collective support for food security, nutrition and sustainable agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa through an array of possible actions, such as increasing Official Development

Assistance (ODA), better targeting, and measuring respective interventions of G7 countries. It is also necessary to empower women and girls in all their diversity within agriculture and food systems and take their needs into account. These efforts can also be backed by the effort to attract responsible private investments and additional resources from other development stakeholders and to encourage blended finance and public-private partnerships (PPPs). Such efforts will support locally-led development and a transformation towards food systems that are inclusive, resilient and sustainable as part of a long-term vision.

c. Mobilising Support for the Global Alliance for Food Security (Commitment 19)

At the Elmau Summit in 2022, as a concrete response to the food insecurity and malnutrition crisis caused by Russia's war and to protect those in the most vulnerable situations, G7 countries decided to establish the GAFS together with the World Bank Group. The G7 also committed an additional USD 4.5 billion to protect the most vulnerable from hunger and malnutrition, which was a total of over USD 14 billion as the G7's joint commitment to global food security in 2022.

d. Migration and Refugees (Commitment 40)

At the Ise-Shima Summit in 2016, G7 countries committed "to increase global assistance to meet the immediate and longer-term needs of refugees and other displaced persons as well as their host communities, via humanitarian, financial, and development assistance [and] cooperation..." and "to strengthen our development cooperation with our partner countries, with special attention to African, Middle East and neighboring countries of origin and transit." Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine has killed and maimed innocent civilians, destroyed the livelihood of ordinary people in Ukraine and Russia and forced the displacement of many. The war resulted in the increasing number of forcibly displaced persons in Ukraine and international destination countries. The G7, through its statement on Support for Ukraine, emphasized to "enhance our support through the provision of short- and medium-term assistance, as well as strengthening access to a range of support services for those displaced and affected both in Ukraine as well as in other host countries." The G7 will continue to address the issue of migration and refugees.

{*1* United Nations (2022). BRIEF NO.1 Global Impact of war in Ukraine on food, energy and finance systems. Retrieved from https://unctad.org/system/files/official-document/un-gcrg-ukraine-brief-no-1_en.pdf}

{*2* Nick Bulter (2022). The impact of the Ukraine war on global energy markets. Centre for European Reform. Retrieved from https://www.cer.eu/sites/default/files/insight_NB_14.7.22.pdf}

{*3* IMF (2023). World Economic Outlook Update. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WEO/Issues/2023/01/31/worldeconomic-outlook-update-january-2023}

{*4* UNCTAD (2022). The Impact on Trade and Development of the War in Ukraine. Retrieved from https://unctad.org/system/files/officialdocument/osginf2022d1_en.pdf}

{*5* United Nations (2022). BRIEF NO.1 Global Impact of war in Ukraine on food, energy and finance systems. Retrieved from https://unctad.org/system/files/official-document/un-gcrg-ukraine-brief-no-1_en.pdf}

{*6* UNCTAD (2022). The Impact on Trade and Development of the War in Ukraine. Retrieved from https://unctad.org/system/files/officialdocument/osginf2022d1_en.pdf}

{*7* The figure is calculated by UNCTAD for the following UN report. United Nations (2022). BRIEF NO.1 Global Impact of war in Ukraine on food, energy and finance systems. Retrieved from https://unctad.org/system/files/official-document/un-gcrg-ukraine-brief-no-1_en.pdf}

{*8* FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO (2022). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2022. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/cc0639en/cc0639en.pdf}

{*9* FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO (2022). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2022. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/cc0639en/cc0639en.pdf}

{*10* World Bank (2023, April 4). World Bank Commodities Price Data (The Pink Sheet). Retrieved from https://thedocs.worldbank.org/en/doc/5d903e848db1d1b83e0ec8f744e55570-0350012021/related/CMO-Pink-Sheet-April-2023.pdf}

{*11* UNICEF website on Reduce Stunting. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/esa/reduce-stunting}

{*12* This term includes refugees, asylum seekers and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and other people in need of international protection.}

{*13* UNHCR Refugee Data Finder. Retrieved from https://www.unhcr.org/refugee-statistics/}

{*14* UNHCR Regional Bureau for Europe (2023). Ukraine Situation Flash Update #44. Retrieved from https://data.unhcr.org/en/documents/download/100004}

{*15* UNEP (2022). The Closing Window: Climate crisis calls for rapid transformation of societies. Retrieved from https://www.unep.org/resources/emissions-gap-report-2022}

{*16* GBV AoR Helpdesk (2021). Links Between Food Insecurity and GBV in Conflict-Affected Settings. Retrieved from https://gbvaor.net/sites/default/files/2021-12/GBV%20AoR%20HD%20-%20Food%20Insecurity%2C%20Famine%20and%20GBV%20-19112021.pdf}

{*17* UN Women and Care International (2022). Rapid Gender Analysis of Ukraine. Retrieved from https://www.unwomen.org/sites/default/files/2022-05/Rapid-Gender-Analysis-of-Ukraine-en.pdf}

{*18* United Nations and UN Women (2022). Global Gendered Impacts of the Ukraine Crisis on Energy Access and Food Security and Nutrition. Retrieved from https://www.unwomen.org/sites/default/files/2022-09/Policy-paper-Global-gendered-impacts-of-the-Ukrainecrisis-en.pdf}

{*19* US Department of State (2022, May 19). Chair’s Statement: Roadmap for Global Food Security–}


Global Food Security and Nutrition and Actions of G7 Countries

The G7 has been supporting broad food security and nutrition development in order to lift 500 million people in developing countries out of hunger and malnutrition by 2030 as committed at the Elmau Summit in 2015. The G7 has intensified their actions to mitigate the negative effects caused by Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine.

This chapter assesses the progress of Commitment 18 and 19. First, it overviews global trends regarding food security and nutrition; the following sections assess the progress of G7 support for these commitments.

2.1 Global Trends of Food Security and Nutrition

a. World

The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated the global state of undernutrition. The number of undernourished*1* people gradually increased from 2014 to 2019, and sharply rose from 618.4 million in 2019 to 721.7 million in 2020 when the COVID- 19 pandemic broke out. Southern Asia and Sub- Saharan Africa experienced an increase of 53.5 million and 33.8 million in their undernourished population compared to the previous year, respectively.

The estimated number of undernourished people worldwide reached 767.9 million in 2021. The vast majority of whom (91.4% of the 767.9 million) live in Asia (424.5 million) and Africa (278 million). In Africa, almost half of the undernourished (136.4/278 million) live in Eastern Africa. In Asia, the majority of those are in Southern Asia (331.6 million). 56.5 million and 2.5 million people are malnourished in Latin America and the Caribbean, and in Oceania*2* respectively.*3*

The global prevalence of undernourishment had stayed consistent around 8% between 2014 and 2019, but sharply increased to 9.3% in 2020, and continued to rise to around 9.8% in 2021. Africa has recorded the highest prevalence of undernourishment at 20.2% in 2021, compared to 9.1% in Asia, 8.6% in Latin America and the Caribbean, 5.8% in Oceania, and less than 2.5% in North America and Europe (Figure 2-2).*4*

The number of stunted children under five was 149.2 million in 2020, decreasing from the baseline in 2015, 163.4 million.*5* This change is mainly attributed to a decrease in the number of stunted children in Asia, where the largest population face stunted growth. The prevalence of stunted children under five also decreased from 24.4% in 2015 to 22.0% in 2020 globally. Only in Oceania excluding Australia and New Zealand, the prevalence of stunted children has been rising continuously. The region recorded the highest prevalence at 41.4% in 2020, followed by Africa (30.7%), Asia (21.8%), and Latin America and the Caribbean (11.3%) (Figure 2-3).

Global hunger is estimated to increase further in 2022. Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine negatively impacted the food security and nutrition situation as described in Chapter 1. FAO estimated that the global undernourished population would increase between 7.6 million and 13.1 million in 2022 due to export shortfalls from Ukraine and the Russian Federation.*6* The World Food Programme (WFP) also estimated that 349 million across 79 countries are facing acute food insecurity.*7* The prevalence of undernourishment is also rising.

People in vulnerable situations, such as women and children, are most affected by the current devastating situation. According to FAO, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), UNICEF, WFP, and the World Health Organization (WHO), "historically, women tend to be disproportionally affected by health and economic crises in a number of ways, including but not limited to food security and nutrition, health, time burden, and productive and economic dimensions."*8* Statistically, the prevalence of food insecurity among women had been higher than that of men in every region between 2014 and 2021. Africa has recorded the worst in both severe food insecurity and a combined total of moderate or severe food insecurity.*9*

b. Sub-Saharan Africa

According to FAO, Sub-Saharan Africa faces the most severe prevalence of undernourishment (23.2% in 2021), followed by Southern Asia (16.9% in 2021). In all sub regions in Sub-Saharan Africa except Southern Africa, the prevalence of malnourishment is higher than the global prevalence. In 2021, within Sub-Saharan Africa, malnourishment was 32.8% in Middle Africa, 29.8% in Eastern Africa, and 13.9% in Western Africa.*10*

In terms of food insecurity, Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to be the hardest hit by Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine according to FAO's simulation. The number of undernourished people in Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to increase by 1.98% in the severe scenario. This is attributed to the low-income level in the region, associated with the high shares of food expenditure.*11* WFP and FAO warn of the risk of acute food insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa, identifying that 16 out of 24 hunger hotspot countries between October 2022 to January 2023 are located in this region.*12*

The number of stunted children under five in Sub- Saharan Africa was 55.2 million in 2020. In the region, the pace of growth in the number of stunted children under five has been slowing down and remained at around 55 million since 2016.*13*

2.2 G7's Support against the Impact of the War in Ukraine

At the Elmau Summit in June 2022, G7 leaders committed to USD 4.5 billion in addition to the already committed amount to food security and nutrition for 2022, totaling USD 14 billion.*14* As of December 2022, the total amount of disbursement was 14.9 billion, which is 106% of total committed. Significant progress has been made on this commitment. However, the G7 remains seized of the dire food security and nutrition crisis and determined to respond to the urgent need to further improve the situation.

a. Emergency Relief

The G7 has helped countries hit the hardest by rising global food prices and shortages of fertilizer. Emergency relief is often provided through WFP, but also through other multilateral organizations such as FAO, UNICEF, and the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), as well as through bilateral channels. Emergency relief includes emergency food assistance, nutrition, protection, health, water and sanitation, as well as agriculture.

Canada allocated a record amount of nearly CAD 650 million for humanitarian food and nutrition assistance in 2022. Canada announced CAD 250 million to help address the global food security crisis in June 2022. This funding will address the increasing global food and nutrition needs— especially for the most vulnerable and with a focus in Sub-Saharan Africa. This funding will help key humanitarian food and nutrition partners, both Canadian and international, reach more people in more places with life-saving services. This includes food assistance, emergency cash and vouchers, and ready-to-use therapeutic food, often used for emergency feeding of malnourished children.

France doubled its contribution to WFP in 2022 compared to 2021 (EUR 161 million in 2022). France is also actively engaged in the European Union (EU) Solidarity lanes which help Ukraine in exporting its cereals. For instance, France financed a project (EUR 3 million in 2022) in Burkina Faso led by the Belgian Red Cross fighting against malnutrition among internally displaced populations, with a focus on children under two years old and women. This project also aims at improving nutrition practices for young children.

The German government provided humanitarian aid to enable WFP to support more than 5.8 million people per month in Syria with enough food in 2022. Germany has also made a significant contribution towards attaining the goal that by end of 2022, no one in Yemen had to live under the conditions of acute famine (i.e., registered under phase 5 of the Integrated Food Security Phase Classification [IPC]). Furthermore, Germany supported WFP in Eastern Africa with an additional EUR 40 million, taking its overall contribution to WFP in East Africa to EUR 123.9 million. This helped to ensure the support of up to 8.7 million people in Eastern Africa and contributed to averting famine conditions in Somalia.

In 2022, the Italian Development Cooperation allocated EUR 267 million to support the humanitarian activities of international organizations and Italian Civil Society Organizations (CSOs). Mindful of the deteriorating global food security outlook, further exacerbated by Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine, one of the Italian priorities in 2022 was to ensure emergency food assistance to those most in need. The main geographic focus of Italian activities was the African continent, and in particular the Horn of Africa, where a severe drought continues to cause a rise in humanitarian needs. In Ethiopia, for instance, Italy has financed a EUR 3 million initiative carried out by Italian CSOs aimed at responding to the food crisis caused by the drought. At the same time however, Italy kept the attention high on other "hunger hotspots," such as Syria, the Sahel and Afghanistan, where Italy contributed to the humanitarian response.

Japan decided to provide assistance of approximately USD 200 million in July 2022, in response to the deterioration of global food security exacerbated by the situation in Ukraine. This decision has been followed by implementation of various projects. More specifically, food assistance and capacity building for countries facing food shortages was implemented through bilateral channels (approximately USD 47.1 million), through WFP (approximately USD 36.14 million) and FAO (approximately USD 19.72 million). Additional emergency food assistance was also implemented through WFP (USD 68 million), UNRWA (USD 5 million), and Japanese NGOs (USD 10 million). In addition, support to promote grain exports from Ukraine was implemented by FAO (USD 17 million). Moreover, Japan contributed approximately USD 48 million through WFP, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), and UNICEF to implement food-related emergency assistance to respond to the emergencies in countries including Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Somalia, etc. This assistance included the project to transport via the Black Sea route and distribute wheat donated by the Ukrainian government to Somalia through WFP.

The UK joined the G7 Leaders' Pledge in June 2022 and pledged GBP 372 million to help countries hit the hardest by rising global food costs and shortages of fertilizer, as part of the Global Alliance for Food Security (GAFS) commitment to step up. The UK remains an important global player and one of the top six countries to donate to WFP in 2022, with contributions of nearly USD 420 million. The UK has allocated GBP 156 million of humanitarian support for East Africa in 2022. In Somalia, the UK's total support across humanitarian, health and nutrition this financial year reached GBP 61 million.

The US, through the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), is funding a full range of multisectoral emergency programs designed to meet the needs of populations affected by the global crisis. USAID is not only funding emergency food assistance but also nutrition, protection, health, water and sanitation, as well as agriculture. Its humanitarian funding has helped bolster emergency programming and scales responses to the increasing levels of need around the world. Recent findings from the Somalia IPC Technical Working Group and Famine Review Committee show that the swift increase of humanitarian assistance—mobilized in large part by the United States—has delayed the onset of Famine in parts of Somalia at the end of 2022. This demonstrates that a universal increase in humanitarian aid targeting those most in need can prevent the onset of Famine and large-scale deaths in Somalia and across the Horn of Africa in 2023.

The EU significantly increased its humanitarian food and nutrition assistance to an estimated EUR 1.0 billion in 2022, 60% more than in 2021 and almost doubling the amount mobilized in 2020. This amount was used to support food and nutrition assistance, as well as livelihood support activities, predominantly through cash transfers and vouchers, but also in-kind. The vast majority of funds were allocated to developing countries, notably hunger hotspots such as the Syrian crises, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Yemen,

Afghanistan, the Sahel or the Horn of Africa. About 50% of the funding was allocated to WFP, with significant amounts allocated also under other UN agencies (UNICEF, FAO, UNHCR) and the Red Cross system. A significant proportion (around 19%) was channeled to international NGOs.

b. Development Cooperation for the Longterm Resilience and Sustainability of Agriculture and Food Systems

The G7 has also contributed to enhancing food security through development cooperation. Such cooperation is intended to promote long-term structural changes to make agriculture and food systems more resilient against future shocks. The focus of support varies, including improvement of income and productivity of smallholder farmers, growth of small and medium-sized agri-food enterprises, and improvement of the availability of fruits and vegetables through a food storage program, etc.

Canada continues to provide long-term agriculture and food systems development assistance to address the root causes of hunger and strengthen the resilience in global agriculture and food systems for the poorest and most vulnerable. In May 2022, Canada made a major contribution to support small and medium-sized agri-food enterprise growth in Africa through a CAD 100 million investment to the African Development Bank (AfDB). It will support investments in green agribusinesses, particularly those run by or benefitting women on the African continent. The funding is provided through the Government of Canada's International Assistance Innovation Program, which helps accelerate private sector development that contributes to the SDGs. Moreover, at the 2022 G7 Leaders' Summit, Canada announced CAD 52 million for agricultural solutions including temporary grain storage equipment in Ukraine.

IFAD and the French Development Agency (AFD) co-financed the project in Cameroon on rice and onions value chains, which is emblematic of pillar three of the Food and Agriculture Resilience Mission (FARM) initiative. In addition, France reinforced its long-lasting mobilization on food security, nutrition and sustainable agriculture. In 2022, it renewed its support to the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) regional strategy for strategic food stocks.

Germany, via the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), supported a short-term crisis response as well as longterm structural changes to make agriculture and food systems more resilient against future shocks. Most of the financial support went to multilateral organizations such as WFP, UNICEF, the World Bank, and IFAD in order to reach those particularly affected by the food crisis. Long-term transformation was supported for example via financial support to the Global Agriculture and Food Security Program (GAFSP) and the World Bank's Transformation Fund, Food Systems 2030, to expand production in a socially and ecologically sustainable way and to improve the productivity of agriculture and food systems.

Italy contributes to the food security of partner countries in the Mediterranean Region through development cooperation, with a whole value chain approach aimed at strengthening all stages and actors of the production chain. Particular attention is given to small and medium-sized local producers to strengthen the resilience of food systems and provide long-term solutions to the root causes of hunger.

Japan provided grant aid and government loans to improve agricultural facilities and equipment to enhance food production capacity in the longterm. For example, Japan provided grant aid of JPY 519 million to Bangladesh. This cooperation is expected to improve the livelihoods of small-scale farmers and the nutritional situation of displaced persons, thereby contributing to overcoming social vulnerabilities in Bangladesh. Japan also provided a government loan of JPY 6.4 billion to India for the "Uttarakhand Integrated Horticulture Development Project." This loan is expected to contribute to sustainable and inclusive growth by improving the productivity of fruit trees and vegetables per unit area, adding high value, and promoting the sale of horticultural crops produced in Uttarakhand state.

The UK is working with its international partners to address the underlying causes of food insecurity and promote robust food systems in low-income countries shaped by its Agriculture Development Policy. Over 15 programs in Africa and Asia aim to improve income and productivity of smallholder farmers through better access to market, finance and sustainable practices.

The United States, via Feed the Future (FtF) is using Ukraine supplemental resources under the Additional Ukraine Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2022 to bolster FtF and implement the US government's strategy to mitigate the global food security crisis. The United States will also invest USD 5 billion over five years for global food security and nutrition, which will include USD 1 billion in private sector-led projects that strengthen local and regional food systems. In June 2022, President Biden announced that the United States is expanding FtF to eight new priority countries, including those vulnerable to the effects of Russia's invasion of Ukraine. The expansion brings the list of prioritized countries from 12 to 20.

The EU adopted a package of additional EUR 632 million as a special measure for 2022 for the Union response to the food security crisis and economic shock in African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries. In line with the European Green Deal, the action envisages to address different dimensions of the crisis in a complementary and mutually reinforcing way by sustaining humanitarian assistance through social protection and safety net mechanisms (about USD 158 million), by supporting medium- to long-term investments in sustainable food production and resilience of food systems (USD 369 million) and by providing macroeconomic stability contributing to the IMF's Poverty Reduction and Growth Trust (PGRT) subsidy account (USD 105 million). In this framework, a program, with a budget amount of USD 26.3 million, is being implemented in the Democratic Republic of the Congo with the objective of improving the seed and agricultural extension sectors, boosting the agroecological production of local crops, in particular manioc, to replace wheat imports, and reducing losses at production and post-harvest stages.

c. Global Alliance for Food Security (GAFS)

In May 2022, the German G7 Presidency and the World Bank Group launched GAFS15 as an international platform for crisis response coordination. This alliance was set up with the aim to ensure that the support reaches those in most urgent need and coordinates aid measures relating to food security.

Germany and the World Bank jointly set up a GAFS Secretariat and a steering group structure, in which all relevant stakeholders are represented, such as FAO, IFAD, WFP, UN, the European Commission, the African Union (AU), the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), France, Italy, Japan, the UK, the US and many other like-minded governments and organizations. GAFS activities are implemented through the World Bank's Trust Fund Food Systems 2030. The following GAFS activities were implemented in 2022.

- Organization of five Steering Group Meetings and five Action Team Meetings, where 15 GAFS priority actions have been identified in a consensus-based and inclusive approach by all GAFS partners.

- Design and development of the Global Food and Nutrition Security Dashboard, launched at the 27th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP27) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on November 9, 2022 by Germany and the World Bank, as the key tool for a coherent global crisis response.

France is closely following the implementation of GAFS, through the steering committee meetings. France contributed to the implementation of GAFS through the Food and Agriculture Resilience Mission (FARM) initiative aimed at supporting the most vulnerable countries to access food products, becoming less dependent on food exports as well as supporting local and sustainable food systems, and whose objectives were partly taken onboard by GAFS.

Italy participates in GAFS and sustains its activities. To respond to the food crisis generated by the war in Ukraine, in coordination with G7 partners, Italy launched a Mediterranean Ministerial Dialogue on the Food Crisis; and two editions of the Dialogue were held in 2022. The objective was to identify critical areas for food security in the Mediterranean region and to provide concrete answers to overcome them. Organized in the framework of the G7, the Dialogue availed itself of the technical cooperation of several international organizations, such as FAO, IFAD, the International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (CIHEAM), and the Union for the Mediterranean. As a concrete follow up, in 2023, Italy is undertaking several "food security missions" in strategic Mediterranean countries, in order to intensify bilateral cooperation in the field of agriculture and food security; the first missions have taken place in Egypt and Albania; the next will be in Tunisia, Lebanon, and Kenya.

Japan supported the establishment of GAFS and discussed the way to foster it. To succeed the G7 presidency in 2023 from Germany, Japan started considering how to develop food and agriculture related data to contribute to or in association with it. Japan became engaged in the discussion toward the launch of GAFS by encouraging greater coherence and coordination among existing various food security related initiatives and frameworks. With assumption of the G7 presidency in 2023, Japan continues to work to help create more resilient food systems in line with priorities set by GAFS and has already started working to provide food and agricultural data to the GAFS Dashboard.

The UK has been encouraging greater coherence and coordination in the global humanitarian and development response to the current crisis along the lines of the GAFS priorities of "advise," "act," and "learn and adapt." The UK also encouraged GAFS to use the IPC to direct international efforts in food assistance and more long-term approaches to supporting food security.

The US government advocated for GAFS as a political level group to coordinate advocacy and messaging with other G7 countries to mitigate the impacts of Russia's war and to address urgent food security needs. Since its G7 endorsement on June 1, 2022, USAID has been an active participant in both GAFS Steering Group meetings and workinglevel Action Team meetings to help identify tangible outcomes, outputs, and priority action areas. This includes the development of the GAFS's priority deliverable, the GAFS Dashboard, in which the US has provided both written and verbal feedback to the GAFS Secretariat throughout the Dashboard's development. The US will remain active in these discussions, providing information and technical expertise on relevant food security and nutrition where needed.

2.3 G7's Continuous Support to Broad Food Security and Nutrition Development

The G7 has long supported food security and nutrition from broader perspectives. This section monitors the G7 leaders' commitment, specifically G7 political and financial contributions to agriculture, fishing, food security and nutrition in developing countries, as well as to multilateral organizations.16

a. Overview of Spending: G7's ODA Spending for Agriculture, Fishing, Food Security and Nutrition

G7's direct ODA for food security and nutrition increased from USD 8.8 billion to USD 10.5 billion between 2015 and 2020.17 G7 countries allocated about half of their total spending for food security and nutrition to Sub-Saharan Africa from 2017 to 2020.

The G7 spent the most on agricultural and emergency food assistance with 41% and 40% in 2020 (Figure 2-4). While the agricultural volume rose from USD 3,422 million in 2019 to USD 4,197 million in 2020, the spending for emergency food assistance decreased from USD 4,883 million in 2019 to USD 4,327 million in 2020. Both sectors' spending follows the same trend in the Sub- Saharan region.

G7 members disbursed USD 2,698 million for other assistance with explicit objectives to improve people's food security and/or nutrition in 2020. The EU disbursed the most with USD 1,734 million. Germany disbursed USD 334.1 million, followed by the US (USD 333.8 million) and the UK (USD 151.5 million). As the core contribution to multilateral organizations in 2020 for agriculture, food security and nutrition, the G7 provided about USD 809.5 million. On a bilateral basis, the UK contributed the most to the reported multilateral institutions (USD 167.2 million), followed by Japan (USD 166.5 million), the US (USD 162.6 million), and Germany (USD 151.9 million). Among the reported multilateral organizations, FAO received the most with USD 204.6 million. The other major multilateral organizations that the G7 contributed to were WFP (USD 131.4 million), IFAD (USD 127.7 million), and the World Bank Group (USD 124.9 million).

Canada provided USD 457.9 million in direct assistance for agriculture, fishing, food security and nutrition in 2020, an increase of over USD 75 million compared to 2019. This increase was largely driven by additional support for agriculture, alongside more modest increases in emergency food assistance and basic nutrition spending. In 2020, 43% of Canada's direct assistance went to Sub-Saharan Africa. In response to growing global food and nutrition needs, Canada allocated CAD 385 million in additional funding for humanitarian food and nutrition assistance from 2021 to 2023. Ahead of the 2021 Nutrition for Growth Summit, Canada committed CAD 520 million for nutrition interventions between 2021 and 2025. These investments demonstrate Canada's ongoing commitment to supporting emergency response and longer-term development assistance to address root causes of hunger and malnutrition.

France's direct assistance for agriculture, fishing, food security and nutrition follows a strategy defined for the period 2019-2024. Five objectives were identified: (i) strengthen global governance on food security and nutrition, (ii) develop sustainable food systems including through the promotion of agroecology, (iii) strengthen action on nutrition, (iv) support the structuring of sustainable value chains providing decent employment in rural areas particularly for youth, and (v) strengthen food assistance actions for populations in vulnerable situations and improve their resilience along the humanitarian-development nexus. This strategy also integrates the overall objective of the French feminist diplomacy of fighting, in all sectors, for gender equality.

Germany's direct assistance has significantly increased from 2019 to 2020. Germany invested around USD 1.5 billion annually in this area. Contributions jumped from around USD 1.6 billion in 2019 to more than USD 2.1 billion in 2020. This is mainly due to increased spending on agriculture, but also due to increased emergency food aid as well as increased food assistance and basic nutrition in 2020. In 2022, Germany pledged an additional USD 475 million. In total, Germany committed resources of around EUR 5 billion in 2022 to address food insecurity and malnutrition in emergency humanitarian food aid and the longterm transformation towards sustainable and resilient agriculture and food systems.

In 2020, Italy's total contribution recorded EUR 155.5 million, including EUR 83.3 million for Sub- Saharan Africa countries. In this framework, it is essential to underline the commitment of Italy to support the so-called "supply chain approach," which allows the strengthening of all stages and actors of the production chain from field to table (Farm to Fork). In this way, in addition to providing efficient and effective support to small and medium-sized local producers, the links between the basic actors in the production process are strengthened, increasing economic conditions and sustainability along the entire supply chain. These initiatives are in the rural development and food security sector in the broadest sense, encompassing the agricultural sector (horticulture, cereals, fruit growing), but also activities such as livestock, pastoralism, fisheries and aquaculture and production of non-timber forest products (for example, honey and gum arabic, products of great importance to subsistence farming economies).

Japan provided USD 647.4 million of direct assistance worldwide, and USD 201.3 million for Sub-Saharan Africa in 2020. Japan allocated the most to agriculture for food security and nutrition, amounting to USD 317.3 million, followed by USD 122.4 million for emergency food assistance, and USD 121.5 million for fishing in 2020. Specifically, Japan provided grants for equipment of fisheries and aquaculture to Kiribati and Tonga and aquaculture equipment to Fiji in 2022. In Indonesia, Japan has provided budgetary support for the construction and improvement of fishing ports and fishing markets in the outer islands since 2018.

The UK's International Development Strategy states as one of its key objectives, "Preventing and anticipating future shocks and building resilience by tackling the underlying drivers of crises, instability and food insecurity, including through sustainable agriculture, efforts to end deforestation, and climate-resilient, sustainable food system." The UK has consistently ranked among the top five donors to agriculture development between 2016 and 2020. The UK remains committed to its humanitarian aid and longer-term action and aim to increase spending again when its fiscal situation allows.

The US provided USD 14.4 billion of direct assistance worldwide for agriculture, fishing, food security, and nutrition from 2020-2022. Emergency food aid assistance increased each year, totaling USD 9.3 billion for all three years. The US provided USD 561,348 in direct assistance for fishing and USD 2.6 billion in direct assistance for agriculture, USD 1.1 million in direct assistance for agro-industries, USD 329 million in basic nutrition assistance, and USD 2.2 billion for development food aid. From 2020-2022, 59% of all US direct assistance for agriculture, fishing, food security, and nutrition—totaling USD 8.6 billion—went to Sub- Saharan Africa. Emergency food aid accounted for more than half of this total, at USD 5.7 billion.

The EU committed over EUR 1.5 billion in 2021 to support sustainable production and resilience of food systems, agricultural development and food and nutrition security. In response to the emerging food crisis in 2022, the EU adopted a package of EUR 600 million to provide humanitarian assistance (EUR 150 million), food production and resilience of food systems (EUR 350 million) and macroeconomic support (EUR 100 million). The total EU commitments of development cooperation in food system related activities increased considerably in 2022 reaching more than EUR 2.5 billion. Some examples from Sub-Saharan Africa include: "Unis pour l'agriculture et l'alimentation (United for Agriculture and Food)" in the Democratic Republic of the Congo which is aligned with the Team Europe Initiative "Alliance for sustainable development: a partnership for people, nature and a green economy," in which the EU will invest EUR 45 million.

b. G7 Member Programs on Agriculture and Rural Development

Between 2019 and 2020, G7 members increased the number of agriculture and rural development programs.18 In contrast, the number of programs which aims to increase the incomes of smallholder farmers decreased from 2,243 to 2,068, accounting for 75.6% and 55.7% of the total number of agricultural development programs in the same period (Figure 2-6). This decreasing percentage is mainly due to the considerable increase in the total number of projects, whereas the number of projects with the above aims decreased only slightly during the same period, remaining well above the level of 2018.

Canada supports inclusive agricultural growth that helps smallholder farmers improve their resilience, productivity and incomes. For example, Canada works with the International Institute for Tropical Agriculture on a project to improve bean markets in Africa to reduce poverty among smallholder farmers through increasing incomes, improving food security and strengthening adoption of climate-smart agriculture. A Canadian-funded project in Ethiopia supports inclusive growth along agri-food value chains by supporting income generation activities and business performance of women and men farmers in rice and vegetable value chains. Canada is also scaling up commercial pathways to biofortified seed and food in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Uganda and Zimbabwe, in order to increase the consumption of nutritious food.

France supported 700,000 family farmers to increase their economic performance in 2020. France is financing some crisis and post-crisis projects through Appels à projet crise et sortie de crise (APCC) (EUR 12 million in 2022), supporting NGOs and communities in the Sahelian region and contributing to the plant protein initiative launched at the EU-AU 2022 Summit. These projects aim at supporting the development of plant proteins value chain in order to increase the revenues of producers, most of them being family farmers through the development of crops with high economic potential, to improve the nutrition of populations through local consumption of these plant proteins, to fight against desertification and land degradation, and to promote agroecology. For instance, the Smallholder Resilience Enhancement Project (SREP) since 2020 in Angola supports explicitly family farmers through capacity strengthening of producers as well as institutions, including on their resiliency to climatic shocks.

Germany through the Green Innovation Centers for the agriculture and food sector aim to increase the productivity and income of smallholder farmers in 13 African and two Asian countries. They support small and medium-sized enterprises in agricultural value chains and contribute to employment creation, especially for women and young people in rural areas. To date, 1,500,000 smallholder farms have been supported to apply innovations in selected rural regions. As a result, the average income from the sale of products from the supported value chains increased by 45% from 2021 to 2022 and by 95% during the entire project period (2015-2022).

Italy supported the initiative, "Promotion of inclusive and sustainable agricultural value chain development in Ethiopia" (EUR 30 million soft loan), aimed at fostering agricultural mechanization in Oromia and the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region (SNNPR) Regional States increasing added value distribution of in-country agricultural cooperatives and of other stakeholders (producers, brokers, processors, retailers) in selected supply chains: horticulture, durum wheat and processing tomato. In 2020 in Sudan, the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (MAECI) and the Italian Agency for Development Cooperation (AICS) launched the initiative "Res-East, strengthening the resilience and inclusive sustainable agriculture development for the people of the Eastern states," supporting small and medium-sized farmers to enhance sustainable agricultural practices in the wheat and horticultural supply chains. Farmers' capacity to produce, store and access market is fostered, strengthening the local value chains, with the support of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) and local institutions.

Japan announced its commitment of USD 300 million to bolster food production through co-financing with AfDB, in order to support African countries in food crisis caused by the limited export of grain from Ukraine at the Eighth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD 8) held in August 2022. Japan also announced the Support for 66,000 people's shift to agriculture for "earning" through the Smallholder Horticulture Empowerment & Promotion (SHEP) at TICAD 8. Japan started technical cooperation to improve the Agriculture Marketing and Distribution System in Indonesia in 2021 and provided grants in the same year for the project, Improvement of Agricultural and Fisheries Value Chain for Smallholder Farmers and Fisherfolk through WFP.

The UK's commercial agriculture portfolio pursues the dual objective set out in the Agriculture Conceptual Framework of promoting food security, while also helping smallholders to benefit from sustainably increased incomes. Preliminary data from a recent review of the portfolio showed 32 UK programs that were in operation in 2020- 2022 reached an estimated cumulative 30 million smallholder farmers with various forms of assistance. In the review period, over 623,000 smallholder farmers have achieved specifically a cumulative additional income of GBP 331 million.

The Feed the Future Democratic Republic of the Congo Strengthening Value Chains (SVC) Activity by the US, aims to increase household incomes and access to nutrient rich crops by linking smallholder farmers to strengthened and inclusive value chains and supportive market services. SVC applies a nutrition-sensitive value chain and market systems development approach to strengthen nutritional crop (beans and soybean) and specialty coffee value chain development in South Kivu.

The EU is committed to facilitating agribusiness investments, especially those aiming to strengthen smallholder farmers' livelihoods and incomes. In 2021, more than EUR 1.0 billion of EU development aid was invested to improve productivity and incomes of smallholder farmers. For instance, the EU renewed in 2021 its investments in ACP countries through "Fit for Market+," a EUR 25 million program which strengthens the capacity of smallholders, farmer groups and micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in horticulture to access domestic, regional and international markets by complying with regulatory and market requirements in a sustainable framework.

c. Resources Committed to Agricultural Projects with a Gender Focus

The ratio of spending on agricultural projects with gender as the principal objectives (Marker 2) and significant objectives (Marker 1) recovered from 56.3% in 2019 to 64.1% in 2020, which decreased from 2017 to 2019 (Figure 2-7).19 Canada achieved the highest rate of agricultural spending with gender as a focus (98.2%) among G7 countries, followed by Germany (85.1%) and Italy (74.9%) in 2020. France, Japan, and the EU recorded more than 60%. The projects with gender as the principal objectives were still marginal compared to projects with significant objectives. Only Canada has a share of at least 5% of agriculture, forestry and fishery projects contributing to gender equality and women's empowerment as the main target in 2020.

Making progress on gender equality and women's empowerment is central to Canada's international assistance efforts. Through the "Scaling Her Voice on Air" project with Farm Radio International, Canada contributes to improved gender equality and food security among smallholder farmers in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali and Senegal through increased use of gender-sensitive interactive radio programs. In Nicaragua, Canada has funded a WFP project seeking to improve equitable and sustainable livelihoods for women and men smallholder farmers in Nicaragua's Dry Corridor. There is a strong focus on the empowerment of women farmers to ensure that they can withstand economic and climate shocks. It enhances the enabling environment to promote gender equality and strengthen climate and economic resilience among smallholder farmers in rural areas.

France has financed Projet d'appui a la relance du secteur Agricole (PARSA) since 2020 (EUR 8 million) in the Republic of Congo, which supports the Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries Ministry in providing technical assistance, such as training and advice on agroecology and support for gardening value chains, which gather a large proportion of women involved in food systems.

The German project Agricultural Technical Vocational Education and Training for Women (ATVET4W) from 2017 to 2022 improved agricultural employment prospects, especially for women, through gender-transformative skills development in six AU member states: Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi and Togo. As one component under the Skills Initiative for Africa (SIFA), ATVET4W aimed to increase women's access to quality training, including competency-based training along agricultural value chains. Going a step further, ATVET4W also addressed gender norms and stereotypes to dismantle structural inequalities for women in entrepreneurship and employment. Training like "Gender makes Business Sense" (GmBS) equipped entrepreneurs with practical business management skills, financial know-how and an understanding of the impact of gender dynamics in business. Over 13,900 people benefited from quality agricultural training, 22 partner institutions have introduced gender guidelines and 17 offered gender-sensitive training, laying the foundations for women's empowerment.

Italy supports the Ministry of Agriculture of Guinea through the project "Paguita" aimed at contributing to the food and nutrition security of Conakry and Kankan regions by improving the resilience of vulnerable families. It intends to increase the horticultural productivity and incomes of vulnerable groups with specific attention on gender issues and women participation. Moreover, in Ethiopia, the approach of the initiative "Improved rural livelihoods through support of the moringa value chain development in SNNPR" includes food and nutritional security issues targeting especially rural women. Implemented by FAO, UNIDO, AICS and Ethiopia, it supports the strengthening of the value chain through integrated utilization of natural resources and the improvement of value addition. In Mauritania, the initiative "Resilience and Food Security for Women through Production, Productivity and Markets in Mauritania" (2P2M) (EUR 2 million for two years from 2021) aims to strengthen the livelihoods of small-scale producers and in particular women and youth living in crossborder areas. 2P2M will particularly target women and youth, with the aim of increasing productivity and agroforestry production through climateresilient agricultural practices and technologies and strengthening cross-border markets.

Japan provided the technical cooperation Project in Cambodia on Gender Mainstreaming for Women's Economic Empowerment whose scope includes the agriculture sector between 2017-2022. Through UN Women, Japan has also supported refugee and host community women in Uganda to increase their knowledge and use of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) technology and has provided 400 women farmers in Somalia with agricultural tools and training on good agricultural practices since 2021.

Many programs in the UK's agriculture portfolio are delivering on Women's Economic and Empowerment (WEE) by ensuring women's inclusion and access to program activities and services, by building women's agency and decisionmaking power, and by addressing the underlying causes of inequality through institutional and social change. For example, Pathways to Prosperity for Extremely Poor People in Bangladesh (PPEPP) primarily targeted women, girls, people with disabilities, ethnic minorities, and over 90% of its target beneficiaries were vulnerable women. The program included behavior change communication activities to tackle social norms and exclusionary practices that affected women, people with disabilities and other social minority groups; and it created a women's agency by providing training to micro-enterprises on leadership and negotiation skills.

Feed the Future (FtF), the government's flagship initiative to combat global hunger, promotes evidence-based and data-driven approaches to advancing gender equity, equality and women's empowerment. The US challenges discriminatory gender norms, policies and practices. The US intentionally engages with men and boys as partners to empower women and girls in their different roles on and off the farm. For example in Malawi the Agriculture Diversification Activity (AgDiv) has identified soy processing, particularly soymilk production, as a way to increase income generation and improve nutrition and specifically targeted women. AgDiv initially piloted the intervention with 30 entrepreneurs and eventually scaled it to nearly 1,500 entrepreneurs by August 2021 (over 80% women). Emerging evidence shows that women's greater contributions to household income through their soy processing business and related shifts in gender norms have led to women's increased participation in various agricultural processes and their ability to contribute to decisions.

The EU adopted its third Gender Action Plan (GAP III) which provides a renewed policy framework for the EU to enhance its level of engagement for the period 2021-2025 and made the commitment that at least 85% of all new external actions will have gender equality and empowerment of women and girls as a significant objective or as a principal objective by 2025. In the area of agrifood systems, this percentage reached 75.3% in 2021. Furthermore, the EU uses its global leverage to promote gender equality in agrifood systems. Due to EU support of IFAD, FAO and WFP, gender-transformative approaches are increasingly embedded in the institutional culture of the Rome-Based Agencies (RBAs), policy dialogues and programs. In practice, the EU further supports women's entrepreneurship and employment in sustainable agri-food systems. A new initiative, Support to Innovation and Jobs for Youth in Nigeria (EUR 55 million) was adopted in 2021 to pursue the creation of new green and smart jobs for women and the youth through skills enhancement (technical and vocational education and training [TVET] in agriculture) and provision of digital solutions and technical equipment to women farmers.

d. Resources Committed to Agricultural Projects with a Climate Change Focus

Out of the total G7's resources committed to agricultural projects, the percentage of the projects targeting climate change mitigation increased from 26.8% in 2017 to 31.1% in 2020.*20* In addition, the proportion of effort in climate change adaptation against the total commitment to agricultural projects bounced back to 2017 levels in 2020 to 57.2% (Figure 2-8).

Canada is committed to helping the most vulnerable communities adapt to climate change and mitigate its impacts. Canada has supported a Société de coopération pour le développement international (SOCODEVI) project in Honduras that focused on sustainably increasing productivity of value-added agroforestry operations. Working with agroforestry cooperatives, the project promoted multiple climate change adaptation measures including practices to prevent forest fires, protection of water sources, use of wood waste to produce biomass energy, and reforestation among other practices. In Indonesia, Canada supports the Sustainable Landscape for Climate-Resilient Livelihoods project of the World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) to reduce deforestation—a leading contributor to greenhouse gas emissions—and improve farmers' resilience to climate changerelated shocks. It will contribute to enhanced climate-resilient livelihoods and food security for poor and vulnerable communities, especially women.

France allocated in 2020, 9% of all projects on agriculture, rural development and biodiversity to contribute solely on mitigating climate change, while 58% contribute solely to fostering climate change adaptation. 33% of all projects contribute to both. More specifically, France supports a project led by the NGO Terre & Humanisme (EUR 1 million) entirely aimed at promoting agroecology and its national structuration, with networks, links between science and practitioners, corresponding agriculture value chains and government support in Burkina Faso and Togo. Agroecology contributes both to climate adaptation and mitigation.

Germany implemented the global program "Soil protection and rehabilitation for food security," which contributed in 2020 to 145,178 hectares of protected soil and rehabilitated soil health to enable resumption of productive as well as sustainable agriculture in seven countries. In total, this amounts to 498,377 hectares rehabilitated and protected soils between 2014 and 2021. Adopting innovative and agroecological methods and technologies to prevent erosion and increase soil fertility, smallholder farmers achieve an average of 45% higher yields, resulting in improved food security for almost 1 million people. In 2020, 117,549 smallholders out of a total 392,798 smallholders have been trained in these methods between 2014 and 2021.

In line with the "Three-year Programming and Policy Planning Document for 2019-2021," Italian initiatives for improving resilience to climate change targeted several priority partner countries (Tunisia, Senegal, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Mozambique, Lebanon, Palestine, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Cuba). Funded projects addressed the promotion of eco-sustainable development respecting the biodiversity and local cultures through training, technical assistance as well as support to governments in defining regulatory frameworks. For example, Italy also supports the project SEMAKENYA II – A Resilient Pathway to Agroecology that contributes and promotes in Kenya the decarbonization process and combats climate change through a new industrial model that integrates the circular economy along the entire supply chain to produce biofuels based on the development of sustainable oil crops.

Japan has provided the technical cooperation project, Capacity Development for the Implementation of Agricultural Insurance, to combat a decline in agricultural production due to climate change in Indonesia, and extended to a grant aid of JPY 300 million to the Social and Economic Development Program to provide agricultural equipment in Honduras.

UK International Climate Finance supports a range of programs specifically designed to help smallholder farmers in the most climate vulnerable countries to adopt sustainable and resilient agricultural practices, many of which also have mitigation co-benefits. The Global Agriculture and Food Security Program (GAFSP) is accelerating its climate focus to build stronger, more sustainable food systems. Roughly two-thirds of public sector projects contribute to climate change co-benefits; almost half of GAFSP's public sector financing, totaling USD 563 million, supports climate adaptation (48%) and mitigation (8%) efforts. Future projects will be aligned with climate plans and integrate a wider range of climate approaches such as agroecology. GAFSP's portfolio is an overall net reducer of greenhouse gas emissions, according to a recent analysis of 70% of GAFSP's public sector projects. Current calls for proposals to countries and producer organizations have further enhanced the focus on adaptation while responding to the food security crisis.

The US through Feed the Future (FtF) supports research and development of climate-smart agricultural practices and helps countries boost agriculture-led growth. As a result of FtF investments, over 7 million smallholder producers, managing almost 4 million hectares, utilized improved technologies and practices that increased productivity, increased incomes, and improved the nutritional status of children under five years of age in fiscal year (FY) 2020. FtF supports activities to improve soil health and water use efficiency in countries where agricultural production is highly vulnerable to climate change. Illustrative activities include land capability mapping and development of best management practices that improve agriculture water management (e.g., terracing, fertilizer micro-dosing) in partnership with host governments and donors. FtF has provided food security training for hundreds of thousands of people, over two-thirds of whom were women. This includes more than a thousand people receiving academic degrees, nearly half of whom were women. Vision for Adapted Crops and Soils (VACS) which is part of FtF and being carried out in partnership with the AU and FAO, seeks to amplify existing FtF crop and soil research investments and will expand the scope of crops undergoing adaptation efforts to include traditional and indigenous crops essential to future nutritional and food security in Africa. It will prioritize those soil fertility interventions that are prerequisites for sustainable production and fertilizer efficiency

The EU, the largest provider of public climate finance in the world, contributes to climate action beyond their borders and provided EUR 23 billion support to developing countries in 2021. The Farm to Fork Strategy adopted in 2020 is at the heart of the European Green Deal aiming to make food systems fair, healthy and environmentally friendly. In the agri-food system sector, 64% and 64.9% of development flows were respectively aligned with climate adaptation and/or mitigation objectives (up from 56.5% and 36.5% in 2020). The EU values the contribution of "research and innovation" to address global challenges and embraced in 2021, the new CGIAR 2030 Research and Innovation Strategy. The EU pledged EUR 140 million and renewed its support of CGIAR through research programs and through participation in the CGIAR governance.

e. Resources Committed to Projects with a Nutrition Focus

To address the challenges of malnutrition and people lacking healthy diets, which total 3 billion, the G7 recognizes the need to have multisectoral responses. The total amount of resources committed to projects with a nutrition focus decreased in 2020 compared to 2019 for both nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions.*21* Germany, Italy, Japan, and EU increased the volume of nutrition-sensitive intervention. However, the aggregated amount of these countries did not exceed the drop of US support that was the largest among G7 countries and decreased for the first time in three years.

f. Support for Effective Management of Food Security and Nutrition

G7 members committed to integrating the performance standards "Principles for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems" (RAI) and "Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure" (VGGT) in their investment instruments.*22* Most of G7 countries aligned their ODA spending with these two standards. In 2020, Canada and the EU reviewed and made their standards consistent with the VGGT and the RAI, while France, Germany, and the US made standards aligned with the VGGT. Italy and the UK were reviewing consistency with the VGGT and the RAI in the same year. Japan did not screen initiatives against the VGGT and the RAI.

The G7 also recognizes the importance of multisectoral strategies which bridge the humanitariandevelopment nexus.*23* Better linkage between humanitarian and development actors can strengthen the short, medium and long-term success of food security and nutrition initiatives. French, Germany, Japan, the UK, the US and the EU developed the strategy as of 2020. Canada and Italy were developing the strategy in 2020 or use the comprehensive policy instead.

g. Support for Capacity Development in Analyzing Food Security and Nutrition Indicators

It is crucial to enhance the monitoring capacities of countries to achieve the SDG2 objectives on Zero Hunger. The G7 has provided technical support and funding to strengthen the capacity of data collection and analysis.*24* France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK, the US, and the EU have a specific program for this issue. Canada also supports building the statistical capacity of partner countries through broader program initiatives.

Recognizing that rigorous evidence and consensusbased analysis of food insecurity and acute malnutrition is crucial for an effective humanitarian response, Canada provides support to the IPC Global Strategic Programme (CAD 5 million over three years 2022-2024), which provides the whole humanitarian sector with the best possible food security analysis on which to base their decisions, to help ensure impartial, needs-based policy and programming. Through a partnership with Action Against Hunger Canada, Canada also provides support to the Technical Support Team of the Global Nutrition Cluster, which provides technical expertise to improve nutrition outcomes in emergencies. This includes on-site technical expertise in the form of technical experts deployed in-country, remote support from technical experts, recommendations of vetted consultants, or other capacity building initiatives. Canada also supports Nutrition International to provide technical support to country governments, multilateral development banks, and global advisory groups on strategic planning and the implementation of nutritionrelated action.

France renewed its action plan regarding statistical support in 2021. The Suivi des Objectifs du Développement Durable en Afrique (SODDA) project is an illustration of its action. Funded from 2017 to 2020 and operated by Expertise France (France's technical support agency), the project worked on identifying the relevant trackers and shared good practices to record SDGs progress in 22 African States—with a focus on SDG 2, 8 and 16, together with L'Observatoire Economique et Statistique d'Afrique Subsaharienne (AFRISTAT).

From late 2017 until December 2020, Germany supported a FAO study in multiple countries to improve the operationalization of the indicator, Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDDW). Since 2020, Germany and the European Commission support the validation and further development of the MDD-W indicator to advance healthy diets and gender aspects in SDG2 through the Knowledge for Nutrition program. Furthermore, Germany supports the 50x2030 Initiative that was launched in 2020. The program, implemented by the World Bank, FAO and IFAD, seeks to improve country-level data by building strong, nationally representative integrated survey programs that produce high-quality and timely agricultural and rural data.

Italy recognizes the importance of data collection, analysis, sharing and use. In line with the "Threeyear Programming and Policy Planning Document for 2019-2021" and the one for 2021-2023, Italy supports Albania with the project, "Strengthening of the capacities of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development for statistical data collection in agriculture in line with the EU standards," in order to strengthen the capacity in collecting and managing statistical information related to the farms through the establishment of the Farm Register. Moreover, Italy contributes to the multi-donor 50x2030 Initiative "Data-Smart Agriculture" implemented by the World Bank, FAO and IFAD, that brings together leading countries in agricultural development aimed at supporting 50 lower and middle-income countries within Africa, Asia and Latin America to produce, analyze, and apply data to decisions that support rural development and food security. It is focused on improving data collection in the agricultural sector at the national level through the creation of survey programs.

Japan extended a total of approximately USD 9 million of Grant Aid for food security for displaced persons from Myanmar and host communities in Bangladesh in March and September 2022. Under these aid projects, through coordination with WFP, market research and monitoring capacity to strengthen market linkages will also be improved as part of the support. In Lao People's Democratic Republic, Japan has been providing technical cooperation to prepare the master plan to strengthen the food value chain through analysis of market data, etc.

The UK has been working very closely with FAO, IPC and other expert institutions to drive improved food security monitoring and analysis, in its followup to securing G7 donor agreement on a roadmap set out in the G7 principles for improved global food security monitoring and analysis for action.

The US has provided technical and other assistance to improve and expand capabilities to collect, analyze and use resilience, food security, and nutrition indicators in support of SDG2 targets. With other bilateral and multilateral development partners, the US also co-developed and launched the 50x2030 Initiative to close the agricultural data gap by scaling up survey programs and building the capacity of national data systems. In addition, the US continues to support research started in 2018 to generate Earth observations-derived estimates of poverty and agricultural yields for selected crops. These metrics correspond to SDG target 2.3.

Between 2020 and 2022, the EU renewed and stepped up its engagement in the Global Network Against Food Crises (GNAFC) with an additional EUR 49 million allocated to FAO and WFP. Through technical, analytical, and capacity development support, the GNAFC has increased the availability and quality of data on food crises, providing evidence-based analysis for policy change to tackle the root causes of food crises and promote sustainable solutions. The annual release of the Global Report on Food Crisis has become an important milestone for donors and other stakeholders.

{*1* Indicator 1 for Commitment 18. Please see the methodology on page 34 for the full list of indicators for Commitments 18 and 19.}

{*2* “Oceania” in this chapter excludes Australia and New Zealand.}

{*3* FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO (2022). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2022. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/cc0639en/cc0639en.pdf}

{*4* FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO (2022). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2022. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/cc0639en/cc0639en.pdf}

{*5* UNICEF, WHO, World Bank Group (2022). Joint Malnutrition Estimates, May 2022 Edition. Retrieved from https://data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/Joint-Malnutrition-Estimates-Regional-and-Global-Estimates-May-2022.xlsx}

{*6* FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO (2022). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2022. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/cc0639en/cc0639en.pdf

{*7* WFP (2022). Estimating the number of acutely food insecure people in the countries with WFP operational presence November 2022.Retrieved from https://docs.wfp.org/api/documents/WFP-0000144470/download/

{*8* FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO (2022). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2022. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/cc0639en/cc0639en.pdf

{*9* FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO (2022). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2022. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/cc0639en/cc0639en.pdf

{*10* UNICEF, WHO, World Bank Group (2022). Joint Malnutrition Estimates, May 2022 Edition. Retrieved from https://data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/Joint-Malnutrition-Estimates-Regional-and-Global-Estimates-May-2022.xlsx

{*11 FAO, IFAD, UNICEF, WFP and WHO (2022). The State of Food Security and Nutrition in the World 2022. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/cc0639en/cc0639en.pdf}

{*12 WFP and FAO (2022). Hunger Hotspots. FAO‑WFP early warnings on acute food insecurity: October 2022 to January 2023 Outlook. Retrieved from: https://docs.wfp.org/api/documents/WFP-0000142656/download/?_ga=2.256731330.858355092.1673881754-618635265.1673881754}

{*13* UNICEF, WHO, World Bank Group (2022). Joint Malnutrition Estimates, May 2022 Edition. Retrieved from https://data.unicef.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/Joint-Malnutrition-Estimates-Regional-and-Global-Estimates-May-2022.xlsx}

{*14* Indicator 2 for Commitment 19. Please see the methodology on page 34 for detail.}

{*15* Indicator 1 for Commitment 19.}

{*16* The data of G7 are mainly from the financial reports of FSWG and self-reporting from G7 members. The latest data of the financial report was in 2020. Thus, self-reporting covers narrative information from about 2021 and 2022 instead.

G7 Food Security Working Group (2022). G7 Food Security Working Group Financial Report on Food Security and Nutrition 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.bmz.de/de/aktuelles/aktuelle-meldungen/finanzbericht-der-g7-arbeitsgruppe-zuernaehrungssicherung-135934

G7 Food Security Working Group (2021). G7 Food Security Working Group Financial Report on Food Security and Nutrition. Retrieved from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1039850/G7-Food-Security-Working-Group-financial-report-on-food-security-and-nutrition-2021.pdf

G7 Food Security Working Group (2019). G7 Food Security Working Group Financial Report on Food Security and Nutrition. Retrieved from: https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/g7-food-security-vf_cle8f57b9.pdf}

{*17* Indicators 3.1 and 3.2 for Commitment 18.}

{*18* Indicator 2.1 for Commitment 18.}

{*19* Indicator 2.2 for Commitment 18.}

{*20* Indicator 2.4 for Commitment 18.}

{*21* Indicator 2.5 for Commitment 18.}

{*22* Indicator 2.3 for Commitment 18.}

{*23* Indicator 2.6 for Commitment 18.}

{*24* Indicator 2.7 for Commitment 18.}


Migration and Refugees and Actions of G7 Countries

The G7 recognizes that orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people including through the implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies are key to the 2030 agenda. Migration can contribute to economic development in countries of origin, transit, and destination. In contrast, irregular and unsafe migration brings challenges to governments, and their people. The humanitarian needs of refugees, Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), and other displaced persons around the world are growing as well as the number of fragile states and states in conflict situations. Crisis and conflict remain the primary cause for forced displacement, undermining peace and stability of the concerned regions and the entire world. The drivers of forced displacement and resultant humanitarian crises are amongst the most urgent issues facing the international community.

This chapter assesses the progress of Commitment 40. The first section provides an overview of global trends of migration and refugees; the following sections assess the progress of G7's continuous support of this commitment. This chapter also covers the G7 support for migration and refugees impacted by Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine.

3.1 Global Trends of Migration and Refugees

The global trend in the increase of migration continues, despite a decline of the number of migrants due to COVID-19. In 2020, the worldwide COVID-19 pandemic had a huge impact on migration. Human mobility was negatively affected by travel restrictions, quarantine, strengthened border procedures and limited access to workplaces due to the "stay home" policy in many countries. Due to these travel restriction measures, prospective migrants were forced to stay in their countries of origin, or had to return to their homes, while others were stranded, unable to travel onward. The UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) estimated that the COVID-19 pandemic might reduce the number of international migrants by around 2 million by mid- 2022, 27% less than the growth expected since mid-2019.*1*

The UN estimated that the increase in the number of international migrants has been robust over the last two decades, reaching 281 million people living outside their country of origin in 2020, up from 173 million in 2000 and 221 million in 2010.*2* Currently, international migrations represent about 3.6% of the world's population.

According to International Migration Outlook 2022 of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), OECD countries received 4.8 million immigrants in 2021, a 22% increase relative to 2020, but still lower compared to the past average of 5.3 million between 2015 and 2019. Migration movements are expected to continue increasing, as OECD countries have been lifting immigration and travel restrictions.

Intensified refugee crisis escalated by new displacements in 2022. At the end of 2021, the number of forcibly displaced persons reached 89.3 million, which is more than double the 42.7 million at the end of 2012.*3 *In Global Trends 2020, UNHCR

had already warned, "… It is the ninth consecutive year-on-year increase. Based on this trajectory, the question is no longer if forced displacement will exceed 100 million people—but rather when."*4*

By mid-2022, the number of forcibly displaced persons reached over 100 million. It is evident that Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine impacted the number as forced displacement started to take place in Ukraine in early 2022. As shown in Figure 3-1, the number of refugees under UNHCR's mandate and IDPs in 2022 significantly increased from the previous year.

One of the largest displacements has been happening in Ukraine. Since February 2022, Russia's war of aggression forced millions of Ukrainians to flee within Ukraine or to neighboring countries. As of April 2023, there were about 8 million Ukrainian refugees across Europe,*5* 90% of whom are women and children,*6* and 5.4 million IDPs.*7* Since the population of Ukraine was 43.8 million in 2021,*8* it can be said that presently almost 31% of Ukrainians have been forcibly displaced. In its 2022 Mid-Year Trends, UNHCR described this situation as "the fastest and one of the largest displacements of people since the Second World War."*9*

The forced displacement in Ukraine has also affected neighboring countries. Initially, the most affected were countries bordering Ukraine such as Hungary, Slovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, and Moldova. But now most countries in Europe host populations of refugees from Ukraine, with Czech Republic and Germany hosting some of the largest total populations, and Baltic countries with high per capita totals. Other OECD countries have accepted a large number of refugees, including Canada, the United States, Italy, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom.*10* The response by Europe and the international community was unequivocal in its support to people fleeing the violence. A key part of that response has been the unanimous decision to activate the Temporary Protection Directive on March 4, 2022, just one week after the start of the war. This way EU Member States gave immediate protection to people fleeing the war. Temporary protection allowed and continues to allow people fleeing the war to register in any country in the EU with the right to access housing, health services, education and work. Since the start of the aggression, around 4 million registrations for temporary protection have been made across the EU.

The number of IDPs has been steadily increasing globally in recent years. Conflict, violence and disasters triggering 38 million internal displacements have occurred across 141 countries and territories in 2021.*11* Due to Russia's war of aggression in Ukraine, the number of IDPs in 2022 has likely increased. In April 2023 in Ukraine alone, 5.4 million people remained internally displaced. The growing number of IDPs globally has added to the increasingly high humanitarian financial requirements. The 2023 Global Humanitarian Overview*12* estimates that a record 339 million people will be in need of humanitarian assistance and the UN and partner organizations aim to assist 230 million people most in need across 68 countries, which will require USD 51.5 billion.

3.2 G7 Bilateral and Multilateral Development Assistance and Humanitarian Assistance

The G7 ODA investment in humanitarian assistance shows an increase between 2015 to 2021, from USD 11.3 billion to USD 19.9 billion (Figure 3-2). In fact, 2021 is the highest investment in each of the three areas since 2015, with spending on material relief assistance and services increased by USD 3.2 billion, emergency food assistance by USD 2.1 billion and relief co-ordination and support services by USD 3.4 billion. The contributions dedicated to African and Middle Eastern countries decreased by 5.2% and 10.3%, respectively.*13*

Following G7 ODA support to humanitarian assistance, Table 3-1 summarizes G7 funding provided to multilateral agencies to support migrants, refugees, and host communities around the world from 2021 to 2022.

Canada funds UNHCR through Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) under the Resettlement Assistance Program through a grant arrangement titled, "Support to UNHCR for Global Resettlement and Complementary Pathways Activities." The grant funds UNHCR activities and commensurate staffing capacity that support Canada's Resettlement Program, including providing referrals for the vast majority of refugees resettled under Canada's Government Assisted Refugee and Blended Visa Office-Referred programs. It also funds direct support during the application process for refugees currently being considered for resettlement to Canada. Additionally, the grant funds UNHCR to provide support and coordination to advance complementary pathways, including the Economic Mobility Pathways Pilot.

France's total support to refugees amounted to approximately EUR 1.2 billion in 2022, including contributions to relevant international organizations and support provided to refugees in the French territory. France supports UNRWA (EUR 33.5 million in 2022), notably in the fields of education and food security. France dedicated EUR 31.6 million in 2022 to respond to basic needs (nutrition, health, legal assistance, etc.) of Ukrainian refugees and IDPs. France via AFD is also committed in South America to protecting and supporting Venezuelan migrants in Ecuador and Colombia via the EUR 1.4 million "Cruzando Fronteras" project. Furthermore, as of December 31, 2022, all projects aimed at reducing vulnerabilities linked to migration financed by France is an outstanding amount of nearly EUR 40 million. The French Food Assistance Program (FAP) contributes to increasing resilience of refugees, IDPs, and host communities in many of its operation zones; and communities affected by food crises often are refugees, IDPs and the host communities.

Germany is the second-largest donor to UNHCR, UNRWA, and UNICEF. Germany's total support for humanitarian assistance by multilateral organizations was about EUR 2.3 billion in 2021 and about EUR 2.7 billion in 2022. Germany is the largest provider of flexible funding for UNHCR humanitarian assistance operations. In addition, Germany significantly increased its funds for humanitarian assistance for the International Organization for Migration (IOM), with EUR 58.5 million in 2021 and EUR 85.5 million in 2022. A crucial source for multilateral development funding is the "Special Initiative Forced Displacement," which provides a total of EUR 3.9 billion for around 299 projects in 76 countries (2014-2022). This initiative has additionally established partnerships with UN organizations to multiply its impact.

Italy provided approximately EUR 227 million for humanitarian emergency interventions in 2022. Italy increased the amount of support in absolute terms, in consideration of the worsening global humanitarian situation among other things, due to the deterioration of some existing crisis contexts and the outbreak of new emergencies. Recipients of multilateral aid were mostly UNHCR, UNICEF, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), IFRC, FAO, IFAD, WFP and UNRWA, with several other organizations sponsored through core contributions also participating in the effort. The funding of country-earmarked multilateral interventions has been destined for the African continent (about EUR 70 million), the Afghanistan crisis (EUR 40 million), and the Syrian crisis (EUR 40 million). The remaining funds (over EUR 70 million) are intended for other crisis areas and/or for interventions that cannot be divided geographically.

Japan specifically provided assistance in the areas of shelter, food and nutrition, health care, water and sanitation, education, and livelihood support in cooperation with partners such as UNHCR, UNRWA, IOM, WFP, UNICEF, ICRC, and IFRC. In 2021 and 2022 alone, Japan provided more than USD 1.5 billion to those international agencies, while providing approximately USD 10 million through the Japan Platform, an emergency humanitarian aid organization, during 2021-2022. Japan has provided comprehensive development assistance to Africa, the Middle East and neighboring countries of origin and transit, to promote peace and stability as a prerequisite for resettlement. In times of instability, there is a greater need than ever before to address the root causes of crises by providing support toward building resilient nations and stabilizing societies from a medium- to long-term perspective, and by supporting self-sustaining development. Japan has continued to provide support for peacebuilding based on this humanitarian-development-peace nexus approach, and positions peacebuilding as one of the priority issues in its Development Cooperation Charter.

The UK is a major contributor to multilateral organizations providing humanitarian assistance, including UNHCR, UNRWA, IOM, WFP, UNICEF and the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), as well as the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement. The UK provided GBP 743 million of bilateral and multilateral ODA for humanitarian assistance in 2021 and is delivering innovative solutions for the refugee crises by working with multilateral agencies, including through piloting the use of refugee job compacts in Jordan and Ethiopia, and helping the World Bank enhance its efforts on forced displacement and crisis anticipation.

The US is the largest single humanitarian donor, providing more than USD 17 billion in humanitarian assistance globally in FY 2022 (October 2021-September 2022). Through funding to UNHCR, IOM, ICRC, and other humanitarian partners, the US supported protection and multisectoral humanitarian assistance, such as providing cash and voucher assistance (CVA) to refugees, other forcibly displaced populations, and host communities. Through humanitarian funding to WFP, the US provided emergency food assistance to food insecure refugee and IDPs. The US has also provided USD 16.8 million in funding to the Global Concessional Financing Facility in 2021 and 2022 to facilitate concessional financing for projects addressing the long-term needs of host communities and refugees in Colombia and Ecuador.

The EU provided approximately EUR 1,845 million to multilateral agencies in 2021. The EU support of the Global Refugee Compact, and its triple-nexus approach under the "Lives in Dignity, from Aid-dependence to Self-reliance – Forced Displacement and Development," are the cornerstones of the EU commitment to increase the resilience of refugees, IDPs and host communities. The commitment continues under the new financial instrument "Neighbourhood, Development and International Cooperation Instrument" (NDICIGlobal Europe) for the period 2021-2027, where an indicative 10% of development spending will contribute to migration and forced displacement challenges and opportunities. This funding includes support for integrating of forcibly displaced people within their host communities and develops durable solutions, particularly in protracted situations, thereby complementing ongoing humanitarian efforts.

3.3 G7's Support to Migration and Refugees against the Impact of the War in Ukraine

Following Russia's full-scale invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, the international community recognizes that assistance to Ukraine is an essential and urgent priority. Given the current situation, this section reports on G7's humanitarian and development assistance to Ukraine and neighboring countries.

a. G7 Humanitarian Assistance to Ukraine and Neighboring Countries

Canada's humanitarian funding in response to the Ukraine crisis includes supporting partners who are providing emergency health services, support to displaced populations, and essential life-saving services such as shelter, water and sanitation, and food. Canada has also sent relief items from its national emergency and humanitarian stockpiles and enabled the deployment of humanitarian and logistics experts to the UN agencies. Through its funding to UNHCR, Canada supports critical protection, shelter, health care services, water and sanitation, cash assistance, and core relief items for Ukrainian refugees hosted in neighboring countries, as well as mental health and psychosocial support services. It also supports regional operations as in the Refugee Response Plan, with an emphasis on Moldova.

France provided up to EUR 200 million in aid to Ukraine and its neighboring countries in 2022 that consisted of EUR 192 million for humanitarian aid through bilateral support to Ukraine or support to NGOs, the UN organizations and the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement (ICRC, IFRC), and EUR 8 million were allocated to Ukraine under the French FAP implemented by FAO and WFP.

Germany supported Ukraine with EUR 460.5 million for humanitarian assistance through the Federal Foreign Office. The activities were carried out by a variety of international organizations (such as WFP, UNHCR, IOM, ICRC, UNICEF), the Red Cross and NGOs such as Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC), Caritas International and HALO Trust. In line with its commitments in the Grand Bargain 2.0, Germany provides funds flexibly to humanitarian partners to ensure the broadest outreach and the fastest implementation possible to enable organizations to react to the ever-changing situation in the field with a multisectoral approach in areas such as food security, shelter, Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH), Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV), medical support, Mental Health and Psychosocial Support (MHPSS), protection and humanitarian demining.

Italy supported the crisis in Ukraine (EUR 40 million) through the funding of country-earmarked multilateral interventions. Italy also contributed to assist Moldova in terms of refugee flows, for a total value of EUR 20 million, made possible by allocations to the Migration Fund ("Fondo Migrazioni"). These loans were allocated to projects in line with the priorities identified by OCHA in the Regional Refugee Response Plan 2022, which outlines the global response and activities to support countries' efforts to protect and assist refugees from Ukraine delivered through projects by UNICEF, OCHA and UNHCR.

Japan provided USD 200 million to Ukraine and its neighboring countries for emergency humanitarian assistance. Furthermore, Japan decided to provide approximately USD 500 million for humanitarian assistance and the reconstruction and recovery of Ukraine. Japan also provided approximately 300 generators for winterization support, and assistance in the area of mine action including a training program for the State Emergency Service of Ukraine (SESU) in cooperation with Cambodia. Additionally, Japan dispatched a Needs Assessment Survey Team three times to assess the needs for humanitarian and medical assistance for displaced Ukrainians, and to appropriately allocate aid from various countries and medical resources by arranging medical data management in cooperation with WHO.

The UK has committed GBP 220 million in bilateral humanitarian assistance to Ukraine and the surrounding region since February 2022. Inside Ukraine, the UK's GBP 15 million partnership with UNICEF is providing Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) services and education to children and families. The UK is also currently the biggest donor to the Ukraine Energy Support Fund, which is providing specialized energy equipment to keep critical national infrastructure running. To support local NGOs, the UK has provided clean water supply to 1.7 million people and established 12 support centers and four health facilities for IDPs. In neighboring countries, UK funding has provided food assistance to over 120,000 people across Poland, Romania, and Moldova. UK funding has also helped UNHCR to reach 1.68 million people fleeing the conflict.

The US is the largest single-country donor to the humanitarian response in Ukraine, providing more than USD 1.9 billion in humanitarian assistance to support conflict-affected people in Ukraine and in the region since February 24, 2022. This includes more than USD 1.4 billion through USAID's Bureau for Humanitarian Assistance (BHA) and more than USD 499 million through the State Department's Bureau of Population, Refugees, and Migration (PRM). United States humanitarian assistance is providing food and cash assistance, safe drinking water and hygiene support, health care, protection support to women, children, and others affected by GBV or other trauma, and other vital relief.

Since February 2022, the European Commission has allocated EUR 630 million for humanitarian aid programs in Ukraine, including EUR 145 million for 2023. The humanitarian assistance is implemented by humanitarian organizations on the ground, including UN agencies, the Red Cross and international NGOs across Ukraine, reaching 13.9 million people. In line with the priorities of the Ukrainian government, the EU provides assistance in the sectors of (i) provision of a targeted and timely winterized shelter response; (ii) cash to cover essential costs; (iii) protection assistance, with particular emphasis on vulnerable groups, notably of women, children, elderly and persons with disabilities; (iv) healthcare; (v) food assistance; (vi) education in emergencies; (vii) water and sanitation. This is part of the overall EUR 19.7 billion in financial, humanitarian, emergency and budget support mobilized thus far from the EU and Member States since the beginning of the war

b. G7 Development Assistance and Funding to Ukraine and Neighboring Countries

Canada's bilateral development assistance program has committed an additional CAD 96 million to Ukraine since January 2022, and provided implementing partners with exceptional flexibility in allowing them to pivot their programming to more effectively respond to immediate and emerging needs across Ukraine. Canada's Feminist International Assistance Policy continues to guide project activities and implementation in Ukraine to address the needs of women, girls and the most vulnerable. This includes working closely with partners, such as IOM, UNDP, UNFPA and civil society organizations, to support IDPs through medical and psychosocial support, humantrafficking prevention campaigns, IDP collective centers and emergency shelters, and helping to establish protection for children crossing the border, including institutionalized children. Canadian partners continue to work closely with the local, regional and national levels of government to ensure the rights of IDPs are upheld and that social cohesion remains a priority. Multilaterally, Canada committed CAD 320 million in humanitarian assistance to respond to the worsening humanitarian crisis in Ukraine and in neighboring countries in 2022. This included CAD 25.9 million to support UNHCR operations and the needs of those who have been forcibly displaced.

France supports Ukraine and the neighboring countries, through international organizations and NGOs, in various areas such as health including mental health and gyneco-obstetric care, winter preparation (provision of generators, solar lamp, heaters, etc.), legal assistance, food, education or journalism. For instance, France funded a project of the NGO Terre des Hommes to meet the immediate and medium-term protection, education, information, psychosocial and health needs of children and mothers in reception and transit centers, in Ukraine, Moldova, Romania and Hungary. France is also supporting the fight against violence against women by establishing a program in Ukraine to provide holistic care and compensation to survivors of conflict-related sexual violence. This program supports survivors through the creation of an interim emergency reparations program with funding from the Global Survivors Fund.

Germany supported Ukraine with EUR 108 million in development cooperation in 2021. Since the beginning of Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine in February 2022, Germany has committed around EUR 652 million of development funding to support Ukraine. Germany has supported Ukraine, for example, with the means for social assistance, housing and psycho-social support for IDPs. Additionally, Germany supported energy provision. Affected municipalities received assistance to cope with the consequences of the war. In addition, Germany has been putting together a support package for Moldova amounting to EUR 149 million. It includes measures to respond to the immediate crisis and to stabilize and develop the country over the long term. In 2022, for example, over 40 educational establishments, hospitals, and refugee centers in Moldova were refurbished with German support or received new equipment. Simultaneously, assistance and support facilities have been put in place for refugees and other vulnerable groups, and refugees have been helped to enter the job market

Since February 2022, Italy provided financial support to the Ukrainian government with around EUR 310 million in direct bilateral aid, including a EUR 110 million grant and a EUR 200 million soft loan devoted to the payment of salaries of Ukrainian school staff. Before the beginning of the war, Italy committed EUR 3 million to Ukraine through a specific repatriation fund ("Fondo Premialità") for assisted repatriations through UNHCR. With regard to Moldova, Italy provided a EUR 10 million grant aimed at strengthening the national energetic system and the resilience of vulnerable families.

Through international organizations and Japanese NGOs, Japan implemented activities in emerging areas such as health, medicine, and food with a focus on the needs of women and children. For example, Japan provided temporary shelters for women and children through UNHCR, IOM and other organizations to prevent violence. In addition, Japan supported the provision of hot meals through WFP. In partnership with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), Japan provided financial support to the Government of Ukraine for the economic stabilization and the promotion of self-sustaining governance in Ukraine.

The UK has provided around GBP 1.35 billion in lending guarantees through the World Bank and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), GBP 100 million in direct budgetary assistance, and GBP 220 million of humanitarian support to the Ukrainian government. Its vital humanitarian assistance, delivered through the United Nations, Red Cross and NGOs, is saving lives and helping to protect the most vulnerable in Ukraine and those forced to flee from Russian attacks. The UK supported the Danish Refugee Council via the Conflict, Stability and Security Fund (CSSF) during FY 2021/2022 to support IDPs and conflict-affected persons in eastern Ukraine. The project supported these groups in achieving durable livelihood solutions through better access to income generation opportunities and legal aid, strengthened government capacity and improved legislation. The UK supported UNDP in Ukraine via the CSSF during FY 2021/2022. The project enhanced community resilience and promoted citizens' trust in the authorities by strengthening the regional administration, local communities and authorities' capacity in responding to COVID- 19 as well as enhancing the access of the most vulnerable women, men, girls and boys to quality public (administrative, educational and healthcare) services.

The United States has provided approximately USD 15 billion in development, economic and humanitarian assistance since February 2022 to address the urgent needs created by the war, while also remaining focused on what will be needed for recovery and reconstruction. With these funds, the US can invest in Ukraine's economy and help resuscitate it after the attacks on its civilian infrastructure and help repair the country's energy and heating systems. The US can support Ukraine's government to maintain its operations, pay its civil service, and provide emergency relief in order to preserve and strengthen the state. In addition, the US can continue to fight corruption at every level to build public trust, maintain donor support, attract private sector investment, safeguard the country's institutions, and speed its integration with the rest of Europe.

Since Russia launched its full-scale invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, the EU, Member States and the European Financial Institutions in a Team Europe approach, are making available about EUR 50 billion for a financial, humanitarian, emergency budget, and military support to Ukraine. The European Commission is working towards a EUR 1 billion contribution to fast recovery. In 2022, the total assistance provided or guaranteed by the EU budget amounted to EUR 11.6 billion, of which EUR 10.4 billion has been disbursed. In addition, the EU is providing an unprecedented support package for Ukraine of up to EUR 18 billion for 2023. In 2022, the EU mobilized EUR 620 million in budget support and a EUR 330 million emergency package focused on the immediate needs of IDPs. Previous ongoing projects worth EUR 192 million have been adjusted to meet urgent needs on the ground.

3.4 G7's Continuous Support to Migration and Refugees

This section reports on G7's funding and development programs, which have been provided to support migrants, refugees, IDPs, asylum seekers and host communities, to countries of origin and transit. G7 members provide assistance through their own aid agencies and partners, and the assistance provided ranges from humanitarian aid to peacebuilding, capacity building, education, and more

a. G7's Support in Africa

Figure 3-3 summarizes the funding provided by G7 partners to support refugees and migrants between 2015 and 2021. G7 development assistance and funding to Africa increased from USD 4,832 million to USD 7,497 million between 2015 and 2021.

Canada provides Capacity Building Assistance via multilateral organizations and an NGO to Nigeria. Through IOM, a project to strengthen border management in Nigeria has been implemented since 2020. This aims to enhance Nigeria's entry/ exit management, and biometric information to confirm traveler identity, detect and deter irregular migration, and the identification of criminal travelers and human trafficking and smuggling. With the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the project to detect, prevent and counter trafficking and smuggling operations, and enhance smuggling and irregular migration data and trends started from 2020 to 2023. Strategic communication capacity building to deter irregular migration and human trafficking is also carried out in cooperation with Ark. This project aims to deter at-risk individuals from being trafficked; and decrease migrant smuggling, human trafficking, and irregular migration from Nigeria.

France via AFD has been integrating the migration dimension into its sectoral projects for around 15 years in order to address the root causes of migration (education, vocational training, employment, health, housing, agriculture, etc.). AFD specifically supports partner countries in defining or strengthening a political, normative and social framework that can reduce migration-related vulnerabilities by (i) guaranteeing the security, rights and dignity of migrants and (ii) preventing the negative impact of migration on host territories and communities.

Germany provided total funding of EUR 2,654 million in development cooperation in 2021 and EUR 2,238 million in 2022 benefitting countries on the African continent. Part of this funding is implemented under the "Special Initiative Displaced Persons and Host Countries" with projects to improve local health care provision in Ethiopia and Kenya. Additionally, Germany cooperates with UNHCR to provide refugees and host communities with sustainable energy in Uganda, Kenya and Ethiopia. More than 115,000 people will benefit from these measures in Uganda and Kenya. Germany further provided a total of EUR 569.2 million in 2021 and EUR 643.9 million in 2022 in humanitarian assistance in Africa.

In Africa, there are 11 of 20 priority countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Mozambique, Egypt and Tunisia) that are beneficiaries of Italian development cooperation. In 2022, Italy provided around EUR 278 million to the African continent under its ODA, making Africa the main recipient of its development and humanitarian contribution programs. In the field of migration, which includes basic assistance to migrants, asylum seekers and refugees, capacity building and voluntary repatriations—under the programs "Fondo Migrazioni" and "Fondo di Premialità" and in partnership with international organizations such as UNHCR, IOM, CIHEAM, UNICEF, WFP, UNDP, the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) and the International Labour Organization (ILO)— the contributions for 2022 amounted to EUR 56 million. Other interventions also indirectly affected migratory phenomena (for example, promoting education, sustainable and innovative agriculture, efficient management of water resources, or contrasting human trafficking and climate change).

Japan promotes humanitarian assistance and peacebuilding efforts, including support for refugees, and will continue to provide assistance in health, food, nutrition, education, disaster prevention, and water and sanitation. In Kenya, Japan provided grant assistance to increase resilience and strengthen social cohesion in host communities, working with UN Women. In Burkina Faso, Japan supported forcibly displaced persons and host communities in the Sahel region to reduce the risk of violence through cooperation with UN-Habitat. At the Eighth Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD 8) in 2022, Japan announced a total investment of USD 30 billion as the sum of public and private financial contributions over the next three years by a peoplefocused approach.

The UK spent GBP 1,727 million in bilateral ODA in Africa in 2021. For example, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the UK's humanitarian programming amounts to GBP 26.5 million and focuses on acutely malnourished children, protection, and early response for people that have been displaced by conflict. The program assists over 850,000 people per year. In the Central African Republic (CAR), the UK aimed to reach over 570,000 in 2022 with vital support including nutrition, health, and livelihood interventions. The UK's multi-sector humanitarian response programs Supporting Humanitarian Operations in CAR and the Region (SHOCARR) have included initiatives that specifically target support for IDPs and host families. The UK-funded Conflict, Stability and Security Fund (CSSF) program — Collaboration Against Trafficking and Smuggling (CATS) — helps Nigerian and Nigerien authorities to build robust border management procedures through new technology, training and increased collaboration that benefit security and stability in the region. It engages with border communities to address the factors that enable an environment where smuggling and trafficking flourish.

The US is the world's largest humanitarian donor country in most of Africa. In FY 2022, the State Department and USAID provided nearly USD 7.3 billion in humanitarian assistance in Africa through international and non-governmental organizations for refugees, vulnerable migrants, and other forcibly displaced persons. Through these contributions, the US helps meet the basic needs of displaced populations and supports solutions such as voluntary return, local integration, and refugee resettlement. Garnering consistent donor support for the continent is a constant challenge that has been exacerbated by the war in Ukraine, the economic impact of COVID-19, trade disruptions, and global inflation. In addition to assistance, the State Department conducts humanitarian diplomacy to seek solutions and improve conditions for displaced persons across the continent.

During 2021 and 2022, migration and forced displacement considerations have been fully integrated as a core part of EU's overall relationship and cooperation with partner countries, in line with the 2020 EU Pact on Migration and Asylum. Tailormade migration partnerships were strengthened with several key countries of origin, transit and destination in Africa. In 2021, close to EUR 400 million new development projects were launched in support of refugees, IDPs, asylum seekers, migrants, and host communities in this region. In addition, the EU provided around EUR 730 million of humanitarian aid in the Sub-Saharan African region focusing on food security, COVID-19 response, disaster prevention and preparedness, and providing basic support to displaced people and populations affected by conflict. EUR 85.5 million was allocated to the crisis in Ethiopia and EUR 81.3 million to address the consequences of the conflict in South Sudan.

b. G7's Support in the Middle East

G7 development assistance and funding to support refugees and migrants in the Middle East increased from USD 3,576 million to USD 4,251 million between 2015 and 2021 (Figure 3-4).

Canada provides Capacity Building Assistance via multilateral organizations to the neighboring country, Pakistan. Along with UNODC, the project aims to strengthen prevention, protection, and the capacity of Pakistan to respond to trafficking in people and smuggling migrants, by increasing data and trends on trafficking and smuggling, strengthening the knowledge of law enforcement agencies, increasing awareness among high-risk groups and relevant authorities, and enhancing the ability of government officials and local networks to protect and reintegrate victims of trafficking and vulnerable migrants.

France supports the promotion of more informed and responsible discourse on migration and migrants through the "Médiamig" project, EUR 1.5 million, to improve media coverage of migration (Jordan, Lebanon).

German funding for development projects in the Middle East was EUR 558 million in 2021 and EUR 425 million in 2022. In addition, "the Special Initiative Displaced Persons and Host Countries" has been implemented in the Middle East. Under this initiative, projects to increase access to education and learning improvement benefited many children. It has funded vocational training and business start-up courses for around 513,000 people, mostly in the Middle East. Additionally, the Special Initiative to improve local health care provision was carried out in Iraq and Yemen. Syrian health care workers in Turkey, Jordan and Syria provided more than 634,000 treatments for Syrian refugees and IDPs in 2021. Germany further provided EUR 1 million in 2021 and EUR 1 million in 2022 in humanitarian assistance in the Middle East.

Italy partnered with FAO in a EUR 1 million initiative aimed at securing basic food security for Syrian refugees through Jordanian host communities, by improving food production chains and market access. In addition, Italy hosts an initiative in Jordan amounting to EUR 1.5 million, in partnership with ILO, aimed at increasing accessibility and inclusivity of the labor market for Jordan and Syrian refugees, including women and people with disabilities with an eye on supporting small and micro green enterprises managed by women.

Given the critical importance of medium- to long-term development cooperation to meet the needs of both displaced persons and their host communities, Japan supports development projects that help to create a conducive environment for displaced persons to return to their places of origin, to resettle, and to reintegrate. Japan also worked through international organizations to support forcibly displaced persons and host communities in the Middle East countries to reduce the risk of violence to achieve longer-term peacebuilding. In December 2022, Japan launched a development project, in cooperation with UNHCR and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), to improve access to vital services such as health, sanitation, education and vocational training with the provision of skill development opportunities for returnees in the regions identified as the Priority Areas of Return and Reintegration, in line with the Solutions Strategy for Afghan Refugees (SSAR).

The UK responded in Jordan through the Jordan Compact Education Programme (JCEP) to support education for Jordanians and refugees (including 144,000 Syrian refugee children) in 2021/22. Over the past year, the UK contributed to support around 480,000 refugees with cash assistance for food assistance and 33,000 households with cash assistance to cover basic needs. In Yemen, UK assistance supports the building and strengthening of systems where possible—especially primary health care. This provides access to basic services for the most vulnerable, including IDPs and host communities. The UK invests in cash-based programs, notably through the Social Fund for Development (SFD) providing a basic safety net for the most vulnerable. In the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT), the UK provided GBP 11 million in FY 2021/22 to UNRWA's program budget. This directly contributes to the human development of Palestinian refugees via the provision of primary health care, education, protection services and relief and social services.

The United States, through USAID, has invested over USD 156 million to provide undergraduate scholarships to more than 1,664 academically meritorious students from all regions of Lebanon. Since 2019, it has extended this opportunity to 187 refugee students, primarily from Palestine and Syria. Scholarship recipients receive the necessary technical, soft, and leadership skills that increase their job readiness and success in the labor market through full four-year scholarship support, including tuition fees, housing expenses, medical insurance, textbooks, and a monthly stipend. USAID also supports all public elementary schools in Lebanon, which includes elementary schools serving refugees. USAID's work focuses on enhancing the overall quality of education in Lebanon by training teachers, developing educational content, and supplying needed learning materials. In addition, in 2022, the United States provided nearly USD 3.6 billion in humanitarian assistance in the Near East region through international and non-governmental organizations. This support provides life-saving assistance for people affected by conflict and disaster. The United States has provided more than USD 15 billion in humanitarian assistance to people impacted by the conflict in Syria, including Syrian refugees and the communities that host them in Turkey, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, and Egypt.

In 2021, the EU Regional Trust Fund in Response to the Syrian crisis continued to address the vital needs of Syrian refugees and host communities in neighboring countries, reaching more than 8.4 million people. A strategic support package of EUR 5.7 billion was agreed for refugees and host communities in Turkey, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq and Syria covering the period 2020-2024.

{*1 United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2020). International Migration 2020 Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/452). Retrieved from https://www.un.org/development/desa/pd/sites/www.un.org.development.desa.pd/files/undesa_pd_2020_international_migration_highlights.pdf}

{*2 United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2020). International Migrant Stock 2020. Retrieved from https://www.un.org/development/desa/pd/content/international-migrant-stock}

{*3 UNHCR (2022). Global Trends 2021. Retrieved from https://www.unhcr.org/media/40152}

{*4 UNHCR (2021). Global Trends 2020. Retrieved from https://www.unhcr.org/sites/default/files/legacy-pdf/60b638e37.pdf}

{*5 UNHCR Regional Bureau for Europe (2023). Ukraine Situation Flash Update #44. Retrieved from https://data.unhcr.org/en/documents/details/100004}

{*6 UN News (2022, March 24). “One month of war leaves more than half of Ukraine’s children displaced.” Retrieved from https://news.un.org/en/story/2022/03/1114592}

{*7 UNHCR Regional Bureau for Europe (2023). Ukraine Situation Flash Update #44. Retrieved from https://data.unhcr.org/en/documents/details/100004. In this update, the number of IDPs refers to “Ukraine Internal Displacement Report” published by IOM in January 2023.}

{*8 The World Bank, World Bank Open Data. "Population, total - Ukraine." Retrieved in April 2023 from https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?locations=UA&name_desc=false}

{*9 UNHCR (2022). Mid-Year Trends 2022. Retrieved from https://www.unhcr.org/media/mid-year-trends-2022}

{*10 OECD (2023, January 6). What we know about the skills and early labour market outcomes of refugees from Ukraine. Retrieved from https://www.oecd.org/ukraine-hub/policy-responses/what-we-know-about-the-skills-and-early-labour-market-outcomes-of-refugeesfrom-ukraine-c7e694aa/}

{*11 Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre (IDMC) (2022). Global Report on Internal Displacement 2022. Retrieved from https://www.internal-displacement.org/global-report/grid2022/#download}

{*12 OCHA (2022). Global Humanitarian Overview 2023. Retrieved from https://reliefweb.int/report/world/global-humanitarian-overview-2023-enaresfr}

{*13 The ODA investment in humanitarian assistance showed in Figure 3-2 is based on OECD-CRS data; the amount described in the following paragraphs by each G7 country are based on each country’s methodology and may not necessarily correspond to Figure 3-2.}



The G7 Hiroshima Progress Report outlines progress made by G7 members in implementing commitments on food security and nutrition, including the support for the Global Alliance for Food Security (GAFS), as well as on migration and refugees.

The COVID-19 pandemic, impacts of climate change, and Russia's war of aggression against Ukraine have exacerbated the global state of undernutrition and it is estimated that the war would bring an additional 7.6 to 13.1 million undernourished people in 2022. In such a worsening situation, those who are in the most vulnerable situations—including women, children and youth, persons with disabilities, indigenous peoples, and other groups facing marginalization or vulnerability—are disproportionately impacted by food insecurity. They struggle to access nutritious food due to rising costs and are at increased risk of hunger and malnutrition. The number of forcibly displaced persons also sharply increased due to Russia's war of aggression, reaching over 100 million globally in 2022. The humanitarian needs of about 8 million Ukrainian refugees, 5.4 million Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) remaining in Ukraine, as well as refugees, other displaced persons, and their host communities in Africa, the Middle East and other countries pose a huge challenge to the international community.

Given such influences in addition to the already worsened states of malnutrition, refugees, and IDPs, G7 members have decided to work on mitigating the global impacts. At the Elmau Summit 2022, G7 leaders committed to mobilizing over USD 14 billion for food security and nutrition (Commitment 19). As described in Chapter 2, the total amount of disbursement was 14.9 billion, which is 106% of the total committed. GAFS's Global Food and Nutrition Security Dashboard was launched in November 2022 and provides up-todate information about food security and nutrition. Moreover, G7 countries continued their support to lift 500 million people in developing countries out of hunger and malnutrition by 2030 (Commitment 18). G7's direct ODA for food security and nutrition increased from USD 8.8 billion to USD 10.5 billion between 2015 and 2020, totaling USD 62.6 billion. Nevertheless, the G7 remains seized of the dire food security and nutrition crisis globally and the urgent need to further improve the situation.

In terms of migration and refugees (Commitment 40), the G7 continues to provide both emergency humanitarian and development assistance to support refugees and IDPs. In 2021, G7 ODA for humanitarian assistance was USD 19.9 billion, the highest it has been since 2015. In addition to ongoing assistance to people affected by crises in Africa, the Middle East, and neighboring countries of origin and transit, the G7 responded quickly to the need for humanitarian assistance and support for the large number of civilians affected by conflict and forced displacement caused by Russia's aggression against Ukraine. The support to Ukraine and its neighboring countries continues to be provided through bilateral and multilateral channels addressing immediate needs for food, water, sanitation, cash and voucher assistance, prevention and response to gender-based violence, family reunification, etc. G7 members have also provided economic and social support while providing a blueprint on recovery and rehabilitation assistance.

Russia's heinous attacks since February 24, 2022, clearly violate international law and have laid bare the cruelty of the ongoing aggression. In the past year, Russian forces have killed thousands of Ukrainians, caused millions to flee, and forcibly deported many thousands of Ukrainians, including children, to Russia. Russia has destroyed hospitals, schools, energy and critical infrastructure, and left historic cities in ruins. In areas liberated from Russian forces, there is evidence of mass graves, sexual violence, torture and other atrocities. Despite the above mentioned progress and investments made by the G7, Russia's war of aggression has caused global economic hardship and a rise in global food prices, increasing the cost of living, compounding the economic vulnerabilities of developing countries, and exacerbating already dire humanitarian crises and food insecurity around the world. Many are still being forced to flee their homes and remain at risk of their lives. The number of forcibly displaced persons, which reached a record high in 2022, is expected to continue rising in 2023.1 The G7 will continue to address the impact of food security and nutrition, particularly people in the most vulnerable circumstances, and to support those who were forcibly displaced from their country of origin.

{Figures and tables are deleted}