"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] Japan's ODA for Energy and Environment for Sustainable Development in Africa

[Date] March 2007
[Source] Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
[Full text]

1. The most important and direct challenge to sustainable development in Africa is the simultaneous pursuit of environmental preservation and economic development, as well as the securing of energy access.

The simultaneous pursuit of environmental preservation and economic development as well as securing of energy access is one of the most pressing challenge for the African people. Not only donors but also African countries themselves must urgently take a wide range of measures to counter this problem. Also, becoming empowered with the capacity to respond to the environmental and energy access situations contributes to the promotion of sustainable development and the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

2. Japan supports, and has actively contributed to, the fields of energy and environment in Africa

Japan places importance on the fields of energy and environment in Africa. We believe three perspectives are important: (a) building ownership, (b) promoting regional cooperation, and (c) deepening partnership, which have been consistently emphasized throughout the TICAD process.

3. Japan will play a leading role to assist in the fields of energy and environment for sustainable development

Japan will continue to support Africa in the fields of environment and energy in bringing into view holdings of TICAD IV and the G8 Summit in 2008, as well as in the simultaneous pursuit of environmental and economic development under the general framework of ODA.

I. Statistics on Japan's ODA for Energy and Environment

Japan is the world's second largest bilateral donor in the field of environment, and is the largest donor to Africa in the field of energy (2001-2005 total) (OECD-DAC Statistics)

1. Environment

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2. Energy

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II. Japan's Measures

In supporting the African development relating to energy and environment, Japan has extended different kinds of assistance, attaching importance on three perspectives: (a) building ownership, represented by governmental measures; (b) promotion of regional cooperation; and (c) deepening partnership, making use of the experiences of local government, the private sector, international organizations and so on, which Japan has consistently emphasized throughout the TICAD process.

1. Assistance for Building Ownership

Development Study for Desertification Prevention Measures in Segou region (Mali: Development Study Project) (Jul. 2004 - Jan. 2008, US$550 million)

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In Mali, covering 500 villages in Segou Region, Japan is now conducting a development study for creating desertification prevention measures through the improvement of living and appropriate management of natural resources. In this study, by utilizing 60 farmer trainers covering this area, Japan aims to foster more farmer trainers and local leaders. In addition, by executing microfinance projects, there are various kinds of activities through which ownership of the local population can be effectively brought out.

Intensification of Farm Forestry Activities in Semi-Arid Areas (Kenya: Technical Cooperation) (Mar. 2004 - Mar. 2009, US$390 million)

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For 17 years, from 1985, Japan implemented Technical Cooperation Projects and Grant Aid Projects for the dissemination of seedling-raising and afforestation know-how, as well as the promotion of social forestry, for covering semi-arid areas. Based on these experiences, now, in order to reinforce further the activities put into practice by farmers or agricultural cooperatives driven by the Kenyan Government, Japan extends technical cooperation in collaboration with the FAO.

Water Supply Plan in Coastal Regions (Guinea: Grant Aid) (1999-2000, 1.284 million yen)

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Japan assisted in the construction of water supply facilities, such as wells with step-on pumps and small-scale water supply facilities that employ a solar electricity generation system, to secure drinking water. These reduced the burden of labor on women and children in obtaining water, as well as secured access to safe drinking water. Now, thanks to the introduction of a follow-up system by the Guinean Government, this project is highly appreciated as best practice for poverty reduction in this region.

Zafarana Wind Power Plant Project (Egypt: ODA Loan) (2003, 13.497 billion yen)

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Egypt is taking measures to promote the use of new and renewable energy to lower its dependency on fossil fuels. Japan supported the construction of a wind power plant with a capacity of 120MW in Zarafana on the Red Sea coast. Operation of the wind power plant is estimated to reduce CO2 emissions by approximately 250,000 tons annually, when compared with thermal power generation on a similar scale. Japan and Egypt have started the application procedures for a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).

2. Support for Promoting of Regional Cooperation

Groundwater Development and Water Supply Training Project (Phase 2) (Ethiopia: Technical Cooperation) (Jan. 2005-Jan. 2008, 360 million yen)

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Japan has built a training center at the Ministry of Water Resources in Addis Ababa and trained approximately 1,300 people in the field of water resource development since 1998. In Phase 2, started in January 2005, by taking advantage of the know-how and technology already acquired, this project has spread out to 15 African countries through third-country training.

Technical Cooperation Program at AICAD (African Institute for Capacity Development) (Aug. 2000-Jul. 2007)

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Based on the idea of Bases for African Human Capacity Building, which Japan announced at the 2nd Tokyo International Conference, AICAD is an autonomous institute committed to poverty reduction and development in Africa through capacity development. It is a joint venture between the three East African countries of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, with the participation of 15 schools. AICAD now has research courses relating to alternative biogas technology, environmental conservation, water quality monitoring systems, organic waste treatment technology and so on.

Energy for Poverty Reduction in Africa: Energizing community-led rural development using multifunctional platforms (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Guinea, Senegal: Human Security Fund for UNDP) (April 2004, US$2.41 million)

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Japan has introduced, through the Human Security Fund for UNDP, a multi-functional diesel-based power plant system in the sub-regional area of West Africa to free the population from water drawing and wood collecting in order that they are able to engage in income-generating activities. This project aims to empower those communities with the capacity to provide energy by rural electrification. By developing the capacity of communities, it is expected that a constant electric power supply to the area will be driven by the rural communities themselves.

3. Support for Deepening Partnership

The Study of Development of Rural Electrification in the Republic of Zambia (Development Study Project) (May 2006-Dec. 2007, US$190 million)

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Zambia has positioned rural electrification as a measure to reduce poverty through revitalization of rural economy and has been promoting, for example, through establishing funds. Japan is assisting the transfer of technology so that the Zambian Government itself can draw up the master plan necessary to systematically promote rural electrification. Henceforth, we are expecting that the Zambian Government will be able to reinforce rural electrification by deepening their partnerships with local governments, the private sector, financial development institutions and so on.

The Project for Biogas Development and Environmental Sanitation in Awasa (Ethiopia: Grant Assistance for Grassroots Human Security Projects) (Aug. 2004, 8.48 million yen)

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Japan has supported grassroots activities by working together with NGOs by utilizing the Grant Assistance for Grassroots Human Security Projects. In particular, in the fields of energy and environment, Japan assisted 113 small projects (700 million yen) between 2001 to 2006. For example, the project for Biogas Development and Environmental Sanitation in Awasa, Ethiopia, implemented by the Women and Children Development Organization, is one of the best practices that has ameliorated environmental sanitation in the Awasa market by developing biogas.

Support for the New Asian-African Strategic Partnership (NAASP) (To UNEP) (Mar. 2007, US$2.2 million)

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Japan has decided this March to support UNEP through Asian-African cooperation to strengthen their capacities concerning development and implementation of the environmental law and related policies addressing global environmental issues, with a view to mainstreaming the environment into development policies towards sustainable development.

Additional contribution to the UNDP-Japan Partnership Fund (To UNDP) (Mar. 2007, US$2 million)

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Japan has decided this March to make an additional contribution to the UNDP-Japan Partnership Fund for the purpose of promoting partnership with UNDP towards TICAD IV and the G8 Summit in 2008. This contribution is to finance projects in the field of environment, climate change and energy, in particular.