"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] TICAD Progress Report 2017

[Date] Aug, 23, 2017
[Source] Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
[Full text]

Table of Contents

Introduction      2

1 Economic Transformation for Africa's Growth

1-1 Public sector-led development      3

1-2 Enhancement of private sector      5

2 Promoting Human Security and Resilient Society

2-1 Social stability and good governance      7

2-2 Protecting and empowering people      9


Effective implement is a key distinctive characteristic of the TICAD process. TICAD has a solid follow-up mechanism with clear reporting which enhances mutual accountability. Year 2016 was the fourth year of "Yokohama Action Plan 2013-2017" adopted at TICAD V and the first year of "TICAD VI Nairobi Implementation Plan" in their respective implementation periods. This report aims to review each stakeholder's effort in materializing outcomes of TICAD V and TICAD VI over the past years.

For the benefit of clear presentation, progress in the six pillars of "Yokohama Action Plan 2013-2017" and the three pillars of "TICAD VI Nairobi Implementation Plan" is illustrated under two broad themes in a following manner.

1 Economic Transformation for Africa's Growth


(1) Promoting Private Sector-led Growth

(2) Accelerating Infrastructure Development

(3) Empowering Farmers as Mainstream Economic Actors


Pillar 1

"Promoting structrual economic transformation through economic diversification and industrialization"

2 Promoting Human Security and Resilient Society


(4) Promoting Sustainable and Resilient Growth

(5) Creating an Inclusive Society for Growth

(6) Consolidating Peace, Stablity and Good Governance


Pillar 2 "Promoting resilient health systems for quality of life"

Pillar 3 "Promoting social stability for shared prosperity"

The report consistes of Aftica's effort, initiatives by international and bilateral partners as well as civil society organizations. The report highlights the multilateral characteristic of the TICAD process. TICAD is an open and inclusive forum that engages multiple stake holders, each with its oen comparative advantages.

In this report, each section is so-written by TICAD Joint Secretariat, namely, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, the African Union Commission (AUC), the United Nations Office of the Special Adviser on Africa (UNOSAA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the World Bank.

1 Economic Transformation for Africa's Growth

This section covers the progress of the following pillars of TICAD V and VI


(1)Promoting Private Sector-led Growth

(2) Accelerating Infrastructure Development

(3) Empowering Farmers as Mainstream Economic Actors


Pillar 1

"Promoting structural economic transformation through economic diversification and industrialization"

1-1 Public sector-led development

Public sector remains a major economic actor that creates an environment conducive to private-sector investment. Among others, quality infrastructure investment and human resource development by the public sector help entice foreign direct investment and serve as enablers for increased productivity and added value in both agriculture and manufacturing

1-1-1 Africa's Effort

On road infrastructure development and operational strategy, the African Union (AU) developed a draft transport policy white paper; planning guidelines; and designed Smart Corridor Systems. AU implementation processes are at various stages on the following Corridors: Beira Development Corridor (Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, D.R. Congo and Malawi) and the North-South Corridor (D.R. Congo, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique and South Africa) under SADC*1* and PIDA*2* Acceleration Programme, Abidjan-Lagos Corridor under ECOWAS*3*, and Zambia-Tanzania-Kenya Interconnect coordinated by COMESA*4*, EAC*5* and SADC.

On Agenda 2063 flagship projects, advocacy is ongoing on the Single African Air Transport Market and implementation of the High Speed Train Project. Scholarships were secured for the first batch of African students for Railway Technical Training. A One-Stop Border Post (OSBP) network has been established, and there are complementarities with MoveAfrica, an initiative launched to facilitate trade and logistics and promote the OSBP project. In addition, AU provided capacity building and supported implementation on Internet Exchange Points in 30 and 14 members, respectively.

Under the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP), 45 member states have formally embraced CAADP as a guiding framework and 38 member states have instituted their National Plans. A Country Agribusiness Platform Framework (CAPF) for increased private sector investment, and a Continental Agribusiness Strategy are being implemented. AU and JICA have signed a Letter of Agreement for hosting the Initiative for Food Security and Nutrition in Africa (IFNA), and AU is contributing 100,000 USD to the initiative annually.

1-1-2 Initiatives by International Partners (1)

- Emergency Community Development Programme (PUDC) in Senegal (UNDP)

The Emergency Community Development Programme (PUDC: Programme d'urgence de development communautaire), launched in February 2015, with an initial budget of 206 million USD, was mostly funded by the Government of Senegal. The PUDC seeks to address the country's multidimensional challenges: transforming social and economic infrastructure, building institutional capacity, and enhancing agricultural productivity and boosting rural entrepreneurship. UNDP is providing technical support to PUDC and is managing its procurement operations and deliverables.

The project is showing evidence of value for money in using domestically mobilized resources to meet the country's development priorities. As of 31 December 2016, PUDC's key achievements included: the building of 278 km of roads; the electrification of 264 villages; provision of access to drinking water to 467 villages; and supply of 13 harvesters, 1562 post-harvest equipment and 24 million doses of livestock vaccines. Others include the identification of two value chains for milk and sweet potatoes and the launch of a computerized geo-referenced M&E system.

Due to its success, the Government of Senegal has announced its plan to increase allocation of resources for PUDC II to 600 million USD. The project is being replicated in Togo and about 21 other African countries are expressing their interest in using PUDC as a new model for achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Agenda 2063.

1-1-2 Initiatives by International Partners (2)

- Supporting Pastoralists (WB)

Agriculture is an important driver of growth and prosperity throughout the continent, and the public sector has an important role to play in creating a conducive environment for increased investment in agriculture, reducing barriers to agricultural trade, and enhancing livelihoods. Pastoralism is crucially important to a range of countries stretching from Senegal to Somalia but faces many challenges including rapid population growth, conflict, animal diseases, shrinking grazing areas, and limited water resources.

The Horn of Africa Regional Pastoral Livelihoods Recovery and Resilience Project assists several countries in the region to support pastoralist communities and enhance their productivity. The Regional Sahel Pastoralism Support Project promotes and supports collective action by six Sahelian countries to support improved productivity, sustainability, and resilience of pastoral livelihoods.Financed by the World Bank with the collaboration of other development partners, the projects provide regionally harmonized frameworks and pool the expertise and resources of a wide range of actors to improve access to essential services, increase the income, and strengthen markets for pastoralists and agro-pastoralists, as well as enhance country capacities to respond promptly and effectively to pastoral crises or emergencies.

Coordination for both projects is provided by regional institutions, particularly the Intergovernmental Authority for Development (IGAD) for the Horn of Africa, and the Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) under the political leadership of ECOWAS and West Africa Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) for the Sahel. While regional projects are important because pastoralists move across borders, national programs are also needed in countries with pastoralist communities. For this reason, support for pastoralist systems is a major component of the Cameroon Livestock Development Project.

1-1-3 Initiatives by Bilateral Partners

- Training on rice sector development for Sub-Sahara (Thailand)

The Government of Thailand and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) collaborate in providing training opportunities on rice sector development for the Sub-Saharan African countries. The trainings cover mechanization, cultivation and seed production of rice, and are conducted by Thailand International Development Cooperation Agency (TICA) and Kasetsart University. Thai officials involved in the trainings have made follow-up visits to the ex-participants to monitor how they are applying their knowledge to their respective tasks and to provide additional advice as necessary. The training curriculum is reviewed for improvement based on the findings of the follow-up visits. These efforts are expected to contribute to achieving the objective of doubling rice production to 28 million tons by the year 2018 under the "Coalition for African Rice Development (CARD)", which was launched during TICAD IV in 2008.

1-2 Enhancement of private sector

Private sector is the key driver for sustained economic growth. More business opportunities generate more job creation, more innovation and more technology transfer. Like anywhere else in the world, fostering small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) helps raise the level of Africa's economic competitiveness.

1-2-1 Africa's Effort

Through its Continental Business Network (CBN), the New Partners for Africa‘s Development Planning and Coordination Agency (NEPAD Agency) published a report on "De-Risking Infrastructure and PIDA Projects in Africa." Work has begun on implementation of the recommendations of the report, specifically mobilizing investments from pension funds and sovereign wealth funds for cross-border infrastructure projects. AU collaborated with UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) on a Model Law for Transboundary Infrastructure Projects in Africa to enable harmonization of legal barriers to cross-border infrastructure investments.

Other achievements related to the enhancement of private sector are as follows.

* Private sector engagement and business climate in Africa Improved - the Pan African Investment Code (PAIC) and the Inclusive Markets Excellence Centre (IMEC) were adopted.

* Skills training and mentorship programs for African women and youth entrepreneurs were established at the Eighth Africa Private Sector Forum, in Nairobi, in November 2016.

* The draft AU Small and Medium Enterprises Strategy and Master Plan 2017-2021 was validated; 40 SMEs were trained in cassava value chain processes.

* 19 Member States are implementing Boosting Intra-Africa Trade (BIAT) framework.

* A draft Trade Facilitation Strategy and Research Paper on Digital Customs were produced. Fourteen trade facilitators and modernization advisers for West and East African Countries were trained to build capacity for monitoring of global and regional customs and trade trends.

1-2-2 Initiatives by International Partners (1)

- The Malawi Innovation Challenge Fund (UNDP)

The Malawi Innovation Challenge Fund (MICF), established in 2014, provides co-financing for innovative, inclusive business initiatives in Malawi's agricultural, manufacturing and logistics sectors, through a transparent and competitive process. By providing matching grants that require businesses to cover at least half of the project costs, MICF helps absorb part of the commercial risk of bringing new innovations to market. Business models must have social impact with specific targets on the economic empowerment of women.

The first round of competition, launched with the Department for International Development (DFID) in 2014, contracted 5.7 million USD, with private sector contributions of 10 million USD. Projects should create 1200 jobs, increase incomes of 33,300 households and provide 30,000 poor consumers with low-cost products. A second round, supported by DFID and German development bank KfW, was launched in 2016 with similar levels of financing.

MICF contributes towards transforming Malawi from being a producer of primary commodities to diversifying into manufacturing and logistics and from being an importing to producing and exporting country.

Challenge Funds have been proven to catalyze systemic change within markets by altering incentive structures for private actors and de-risking investment environment. MICF is demonstrating that there is a resilient and emerging private sector that has acquired capacity to innovate and evolve despite the challenging economic environment. Appetite for risk capital is huge, although this space remains untapped.

1-2-2 Initiatives by International Partners (2)

- Expanding Use of Solar Power (WB)

In many countries, the high cost of power and unreliable access act as a major constraint to private sector activity. The average cost of power in African countries is twice that of other developing countries, and six hundred million people and ten million SMEs lack access. But the continent has vast renewable energy resources and private sector is taking the lead in expanding solar and off-grid power.

Scaling Solar is a World Bank Group initiative supported by other partners and involving the private sector. It expects to catalyze over 1 billion USD of investments in new solar generation capacity and bring on line an additional 1 GW of capacity in 4-5 years. It has reduced the cost and time needed to put private-funded, grid- connected solar energy projects in place through competitive bidding by providing:

* Advice to determine size and location of solar PV power plants

* Simple and rapid tendering for strong competition

* Standardized templates to eliminate negotiation

* Competitive financing and insurance available to all bidders

*Risk management and credit enhancement products to lower financing costs and tariffs.

To date, several countries including Zambia and Madagascar are all employing Scaling Solar. Innovation and competition among private producers has also driven down the price of solar lanterns and small scale solar systems, while pay-as-you-go models have increased flexibility and affordability. Initiatives like the World Bank Group's Lighting Global ensure quality assurance for products.

1-2-3 Initiatives by Bilateral Partners

- Franco-Japanese Plan for Africa

The governments of France and Japan co-organized a side-event during TICAD VI to assess the progress of the implementation of the "Franco-Japanese plan for sustainable development, health and security in Africa" launched by Prime Ministers of France and Japan in October n 2015.

During the side-event, a memorandum of cooperation in the area of sustainable cities was signed by the Government of Côte d'Ivoire, France Development Agency (AFD) and JICA.

Three memorandums of understanding were also signed by private companies: one between the subsidiaries of Total and Mitsubishi Corporation, aimed at developing solar energy in Kenya, and two between Egis and Mitsubishi Corporation in the areas of water supply, energy, roads, etc. across the continent.

2 Promoting Human Security and Resilient Society

This section covers the progress of the following pillars of TICAD V and VI.


(4) Promoting Sustainable and Resilient Growth

(5) Creating and Inclusive Society for Growth

(6) Consolidating Peace, Stability and Good Governance


Pillar 2

"Promoting resilient health systems for quality of life"

Pillar 3

"Promoting social stability for shared prosperity"

2-1 Social stability and good governance

Peace and stability are prerequisites for development. Security concerns including terrorism and transnational organized crimes need to be duly addressed. Social stability requires concerted efforts against a wide range of issues including climate change, environmental degradation and natural disasters.

2-1-1 Africa's Effort

Through TICAD, there has been enhanced partnership and coordination in the promotion of sustainable development on the continent. In promoting peace and security, the Government of Japan has supported peace support operations through non-lethal support to the police component in the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM), and the funding of human rights observers during the deployment of the African-led International Stabilization Mission in Mali.

A draft African Strategy on Climate Change was developed and Africa's success stories in climate change were showcased during COP 22 held at Marrakesh, Morocco in over 90 side events. Implementation of the African Common Strategy on Combating Illegal Trade and Illegal Exploitation of Africa's Wild Flora and Fauna was discussed as a way of dealing with biodiversity and conservation challenges of the continent.

Eight countries were supported in developing national strategies and action plans as part of the implementation of the Pan African Initiative of the Great Green Wall of the Sahara and Sahel initiative. A continent wide project on Climate Services for Disaster Risks Reduction was launched and a functional Disaster Risk Reduction Unit has been established.

2-1-2 Initiatives by International Partners (1)

"Africa Week" - Mobilizing global support for Africa's social stability and good governance (UNOSAA)

In order to promote social stability and good governance in Africa, multilateral partners, including the UN system, have been further strengthening their partnerships with, and providing a wide range of support for, African member states and regional organizations, including the AUC, the NEPAD Agency, the African Peer Review Mechanism and African regional economic communities.

With the adoption of the Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development, AU's Agenda 2063 and its First Ten Year Implementation Plan as well as TICAD outcome documents, inclusive, comprehensive and coherent approach became a key to promoting Africa's social stability and good governance. At policy level, therefore, the UN Office of the Special Adviser on Africa (UN- OSAA) regularly organizes high-level events on Africa's peace and security, good governance and sustainable development to provide a global platform for policy discussions and recommendations towards mobilizing inclusive, comprehensive, and coherent political, financial, and technical support for Africa's efforts.

In particular, UN-OSAA co- organized with the AU and UN entities, various high-level events during the "Africa Week 2016" at UN headquarters in October 2016 in New York on the theme "Strengthening Partnerships for Inclusive Sustainable Development, Good Governance, Peace and Stability in Africa." These events laid the foundation for greater synergy, coordination and complementarity amongst many stakeholders supporting Africa's transformative and sustainable development agenda and generated concrete recommendations for reinforced partnerships.

2-1-2 Initiatives by International Partners (2)

- Inclusive and Participatory Approach to Peace, Security and Resilience in the Sahel (UNDP)

Since 2013, UNDP has been working with five countries in the Sahel to consolidate peace and human security in the region. The project has been structured into four phases: (1) Peacebuilding and Good Governance; (2) Strengthening Human Security and Community Resilience in the Sahel; (3) Border Management and Border Communities; and (4) Border Management for Stability & Human Security.

Its key achievements include: first, it promoted political dialogue through the training of members of the National Council for Political Dialogue (CNDP) in Niger and led to the creation of the Burkinabe Observatory of Religious Facts. Second, 226,091 people benefitted through income-generating activities and institutional capacity building. Third, it reinforced cross-border coordination capacity (including preparation of national border strategies, the elaboration of the Mali national strategy to prevent violent extremism, training of 1,200 border agents and security forces and 2,500 community members) - about 458,012 people along the borders benefitted from the project.

An important lesson from this UNDP-Japan strategic partnership is that inclusive and participatory approach (that empowers communities, expands income-generating activities, and inspires community dialogue) is vital to promoting peace, security and resilience. To promote human security and sustainable development in the continent, UNDP will continue to build on these results and replicate the approach in other regions.

2-1-3 Initiatives by Bilateral Partners

- UK-Japan Collaboration to Clear Landmines in Angola

UK and Japan jointly provide necessary funding for a landmine clearance project in Malanje Province in Angola, implemented by an NGO called "Norwegian People's Aid (NPA). The UK decided to provide assistance of 20,988 USD in August 2016 to purchase communication equipment and safety boots. Japan extended 203,384 USD through its Grant Assistance for Grassroots Human Security Projects in March 2016 to cover the expenses for personnel, equipment, etc. The project will clear a total of 1,172,270 square meters of land from landmines, benefitting more than 11,000 local residents.

In 2017, the UK and Japan collaborated in supporting a demining project by an NGO called "Halo Trust" in Huambo Province by providing GBP 50,000 and USD 550,000 respectively. The project will clear a total of 191,692 square meters of land from landmines, benefitting more than 2,490 local residents.

These projects supported by the UK and Japan are expected to reduce the number of casualties caused by unexploded landmines, secure the safety of land, and promote effective use of land for food production and other social and economic development projects, thus materializing the peace dividend in Angola.

2-2 Protecting and empowering people

Respect for human rights and the rule of law constitute main elements of human security that protect and empower each and every individual. In order to make sure that no one is left behind, we need to pursue social and economic development, including in the area of health which put emphasis on preparedness and prevention against public health crises and universal health coverage (UHC).

2-2-1 Africa's Effort

Africa recorded a cumulative total of 31 Member States implementing the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa (Maputo Protocol) and other gender equality and women's economic empowerment instruments.

On policies and programmes for social security and protection of vulnerable groups especially children and persons living with disabilities, and the aged, 25 Member States out of a target of 30 adopted the social policy framework; the African Charter on Human and People's Rights of Persons with Disabilities has been validated.

Regarding primary health care and prevention, a cumulative total of 20 Member States out of a target of 20 has aligned their national health plans with the AU health policies. Further the Africa Health Strategy 2016 - 2030, Eliminate Malaria in Africa by 2030 and the Maputo Plan of Action 2016 - 2030 were adopted and Africa Centers for Disease Control (CDC) was established.

On regulation of pharmaceuticals, African Union coordinated process of harmonization in collaboration with the Regional Economic Communities (RECs). The East African Community (EAC) has adopted regulations for registration of medicines, and building on its success, AU is now focusing on ECOWAS.

With respect to education, science, technology and Innovation capacities, three strategies were adopted: the Continental Education Strategy for Africa (CESA-16-25); Continental Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET); and Science, Technology and Innovation Strategy for Africa (STISA-2024). Concrete steps also include setting-up of a Committee of Champion of Heads of State and Government on Education, Science and Technology; the Pan African University and the current setting-up of e-University; expansion of TVET opportunities, supporting research and institutionalizing the implementation of the AU space flagship program.

2-2-2 Initiatives by International Partners (1)

- Promoting Universal Health Coverage and Strengthening Response and Preparedness against Public Health Emergencies in Africa (WB)

Following TICAD VI, the World Bank, the World Health Organization (WHO), the African Development Bank, the Government of Japan and JICA are increasing support to help African countries expand universal health coverage (UHC), as well as to share relevant information and experiences. Several African countries are leading the way in enhancing access to UHC, including for the most vulnerable. The UHC Forum will be held in Tokyo in December 2017. While the Forum will be global in nature, African countries will play a major role, and their experiences in expanding UHC will be highlighted.

Response to pandemics is a key element of UHC, and since the Ebola crisis, the international community has moved to establish a pandemic risk management architecture. The Pandemic Emergency Financing Facility, (PEF), launched by the World Bank Group in 2016 with support from Japan and Germany, is the first instrument to provide pandemic insurance coverage o developing countries. The PEF pilot will operate for three years, offering up to 500 million USD in coverage funded through bond issuance and financial markets, and up to 50 million USD through a complementary cash window financed by development partners. The insurance window covers outbreaks of a specified list of infectious diseases most likely to cause pandemics, while the cash window provides funding to address a larger set of diseases.

The PEF will complement the WHO's immediate response Contingency Fund for Emergencies. By providing resources swiftly to countries and international responders to stem an outbreak before it reaches pandemic proportions, the PEF will help save lives, reduce the cost of effective response, and limit the economic impact of outbreaks of contagious diseases.

2-2-2 Initiatives by International Partners (2)

- The Regional Project on Preventing and Responding to Violent Extremism in Africa:A development approach (UNDP)

UNDP is implementing the four-year regional project to address root causes of violent extremism.

At the regional level, the project supported IGAD in the development of a strategy for preventing and countering violent extremism (P/CVE), the first regional PVE strategy, through the inclusive process. The strategy will enhance regional and cross-border cooperation and coordination on violent extremism and the IGAD plan of action is being developed.

At the country level, the project will be implemented in 16 countries including four IGAD countries.

At the community level the project focuses on building the resilience of communities by engaging with key formal and informal institutions - such as faith-based entities. The religious leaders' conferences were held in Abuja, Nigeria, in October 2016, and in Kampala, Uganda, in May 2017, bringing together over 85 religious leaders. Through these conferences agreements were reached on the role of religious leaders, and the development of database for their networking. Further, a religious edict (declaration) was adopted, articulating the position of religious leaders about the ideology used by extremist groups, providing further momentum for a common engagement strategy to address violent extremism.

2-2-3 Initiatives by Civil Society Organization (1)

- SDGs Kenya Forum: Involvement in TICAD

Civil society organizations (CSOs) engaged in the TICAD process under the SDGs Kenya Forum in 2015-2016 embarked on an effort to create awareness and establish a follow-up mechanism of their own, through capacity building sessions, analytic studies and dialogues. After the official announcement that TICAD VI was to be held in Kenya, the SDGs Kenya Forum lobbied with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of Devolution and Planning of Kenya, which resulted in the joint meetings supported by both parties.

Some members of the SDGs Kenya Forum directly implement projects at the community level. For instance, International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), Kenyan AIDS NGOs Consortium (KANCO), and other partners have received grants from the Global Fund and others to facilitate their interventions at the local communities to fight HIV/AIDs & tuberculosis and promote sexual reproductive health and maternal health.

2-2-3 Initiatives by Civil Society Organization (2)

- Hunger Free World: Nutrition Improvement and Income Generation through Chicken Rearing in Uganda

In Uganda, Hunger Free World supports the efforts of cooperatives, enabling communities to become economically self-reliant. 50 women from the cooperatives took part in the nutrition improvement project through poultry farming. They were provided with chickens and given information on how to raise them. After a year, the nutrition status of those involved has improved. The cooperative members also sold extra eggs, allowing them to pay for their children's school fees and improve their livelihoods. Seeing the benefits of the project, those families who were not participating have started to raise their own chickens in their communities—learning from the cooperative members and replicating the project on their own. Other work by cooperatives include tree planting, drilling wells, and nutrition improvement for children under five years old.

{*1* SADC: Southern African Development Community}

{*2* PIDA: Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa}

{*3* ECOWAS: Economic Community of West African States}

{*4* COMESA: Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa }

{*5* EAC: East African Community}