"The World and Japan" Database (Project Leader: TANAKA Akihiko)
Database of Japanese Politics and International Relations
National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS); Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia (IASA), The University of Tokyo

[Title] Yokohama Declaration 2019

[Date] August 30, 2019
[Source] Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
[Full text]

1.0 Introduction

1.1 We, the Heads of State and Government and delegations of Japan and African Union Member States together with representatives of Intergovernmental African, international, regional organizations and partner countries, as well as the private sector and civil society organizations from Japan and Africa, met in Yokohama, Japan, on 28-30 August 2019, for the Seventh Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD 7).

1.2 We note the progress made across Africa in recent years and recognize the significant transformations in the continent and the world since TICAD began in 1993. We further note the achievements of TICAD since its inception and continue to implement the guiding principles of African ownership and international partnership, inclusivity and openness. Implementation of TICAD should be guided by Africa's development dynamics and priorities bearing in mind the concepts of sustainable development and human security. TICAD should therefore be aligned with the African vision as explicitly stated in the African Union (AU) Agenda 2063 and its First Ten-Year Implementation plan, as well as the global commitment to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (SDGs). We commend the efforts of the African Union and its Member States in deepening economic integration as manifested in the recent entry into force of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), and its operational tools launched at the 12th AU Extraordinary Summit, held in Niamey, Niger, on July 7th 2019. We encourage African Union Member States, with the participation of stakeholders including civil society and the private sector, to continue their efforts to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and create an enabling environment for private sector involvement, including of small and medium enterprises. We welcome the transformation of NEPAD Agency into the African Union Development Agency (AUDA-NEPAD).

1.3 We recognize the unique role of TICAD as a multilateral forum for Africa's development. In this regard, TICAD Co-organizers; the Government of Japan, the United Nations, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Bank and the African Union Commission (AUC), reflect the multilateral character of TICAD. We recognize their comparative advantages and respective contributions, especially in connecting Africa to regional, continental, and global knowledge, networks, and expertise; fostering consensus building; and supporting the implementation of shared regional, continental and international agendas. In addition to TICAD, Japan has led global discussions on issues of African development during its Presidency of the G20. At the same time, we recognize that TICAD encapsulates a particular relationship between Japan and Africa. It allows Africa and Japan to benefit from each other's comparative advantages including Japan's experience in Asia's development and Africa's recent economic dynamics. Japan and Africa recognize the importance of cooperating on issues such as quality infrastructure, private sector impact investment, macro-economic stability, technological innovation, notably in industrialization, economic transformation and social development, as well as climate change adaptation and mitigation, disaster risk reduction and management, human resource development, institution building and peace and security, towards the attainment of human development and human security.

2.0 Current Situation

2.1 TICAD 7 takes place in a rapidly evolving and dynamic global context. We

commend the levels of economic growth the African continent has achieved since TICAD VI. We note the progress made towards the operationalization of the AfCFTA to deepen regional economic integration and to achieve the objectives of Abuja Treaty, and recognize that the AfCFTA promotes more sustainable and inclusive trade that is less dependent on the fluctuations of commodity prices. We also recognize progress made to enhance governance, human and institutional capacity and service delivery, and protect those living in vulnerable and marginalized situations especially children, youth, women and girls. We acknowledge the deepening of democratic practice, and commend African- led efforts to address African challenges on peace and security such as the recent progress observed in the Horn of Africa. We further recognize progress made in human development and entrenchment of human and people's rights including through contributions of human rights institutions such as the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights, the African Commission on Human and People's Rights and the Committee of Experts on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. We support ongoing efforts to strengthen the humanitarian-development-peace-security nexus including the operationalization of the African Humanitarian Agency. Furthermore, we commit our support to the AU Agenda 2063 and its Flagship Programmes and Projects, including the Initiative on Silencing the Guns in Africa by 2020, recognizing that peace and development are inextricably linked.

2.2 Despite the foregoing progress, we recognize that Africa is confronted by global challenges that could hamper and erode the progress that has been made. Climate change, loss of biodiversity, irregular migration, disease outbreaks, and natural disasters know no borders as exemplified by cyclones Idai and Kenneth that devastated parts of Southern and Eastern Africa in 2019. We recognize the important role to be played by the African Migration Observatory in Morocco, the African Center for the Study and Research on Migration in Mali, and the Continental Operational Centre in Sudan to effectively strengthen migration and human mobility governance in Africa. We acknowledge that negative phenomenon from other regions of the world and within the continent, such as high levels of greenhouse gas emission; illicit financial flows; proliferation and trafficking of drugs, people, small arms and light weapons; and illegal wildlife trade might slow progress toward achieving the goals and aspirations of the AU Agenda 2063 and the 2030 Agenda. Throughout the world, countries need to create decent jobs for youth and women while taking into account that technological advances are changing the world of work. We recognize the need to prepare for the impact of digitalization on employment and to develop a conducive environment to improve the access of people to new information technologies, as well as enhance human and institutional capacities to take advantage of these changes, noting the importance of human-centered approach. We welcome the African Space Agency intended to promote science, technology and innovation (STI) for Africa's sustainable development. We recognize the importance of fighting against poverty and inequality and to promote social inclusion and cohesion, leaving no one behind. Enhancing governance, combatting transnational organized crime, illicit financial flows and corruption, promoting peace-building, and countering illegal wildlife trade, terrorism and violent extremism are also issues of global priority. We commit to working individually and collectively to addressing these issues as urgent challenges.

2.3 We commit to sustaining and accelerating development progress, taking advantage of Africa's opportunities for transformation. Among other attributes, it has large untapped sources of renewable energy, arable land, and natural resources that could be used to propel socioeconomic transformation. Africa is the most youthful continent, with a population of over one (1) billion people and a middle class of 300 million that is growing as incomes rise. Agriculture and agribusiness are expected to be a USD one (1) trillion industry by 2030, with urbanization and changing food patterns creating new economic opportunities. Some African Union Member States are also among the fastest growing economies and the top performers in terms of improving the business climate. With an improving business and regulatory environment, Africa offers significant investment opportunities to domestic and foreign investors for economic diversification in transformative sectors such as agriculture, industry, infrastructure, energy and ICT. The continent is an attractive destination for investors and serves as a huge source of consumer markets for locally and internationally produced food, goods and services. In this regard, we commit to promoting advocacy platforms to attain greater visibility for AfCFTA internationally and for the private sector and other stakeholders in Africa and Japan to enhance the implementation of AfCFTA. Africa could reap a demographic dividend provided its young people are empowered and equipped with the necessary skills and capacities from the early years to develop and harness science, technology and innovation that drives competitiveness through training customized to priority sectors for economic transformation, as highlighted in the newly launched African Union Gender Strategy and the African Union Demographic Dividend Road Map.

2.4 We stress the high priority we attach to multilateralism and international legitimacy. We reiterate that the reform of the Security Council should be addressed in a comprehensive, transparent and balanced manner, addressing all the five key issues including the question of the veto, and should garner the widest possible political acceptance by Member States through the intergovernmental negotiations that are fully owned and led by Member States, as stipulated in the UN General Assembly Decision 62/557. We acknowledge the historical injustice against Africa with regard to its representation in the Security Council, and express support for full African representation in the Security Council, through not less than two Permanent seats with all the prerogatives and privileges of Permanent membership including the right of veto, and five Non-permanent seats, in line with the African Common Position as enshrined in Ezulwini Consensus and Sirte Declaration.

3.0 Theme of TICAD 7

3.1 We adopt "Advancing Africa's Development through People, Technology and

Innovation" as the overarching theme for TICAD 7. This theme is fully aligned with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the AU Agenda 2063, as well as the continental priorities for integration, as reflected in its flagship programs. These include AfCFTA, the African Union Protocol on Free Movement of Persons, the Single African Air Transport Market (SAATM), the Digital Transformation Strategy, the Program for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA), the Presidential Infrastructure Championing Initiative (PICI), the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP) and the AU Plan of Action for Accelerated Industrial Development of Africa and the Third Industrial Development Decade for Africa. We note the importance of placing ‘people' at the heart of Africa's development and call for the full implementation of the Addis Ababa Declaration for Population and Development and the Program of Action of the International Conference for Population Development. We believe the TICAD 7 theme could serve as a development accelerator and multiplier. We are confident that with this theme TICAD will help to deepen trade and investment; capacity and skills development; investment in quality infrastructure; people's exchange and networking; innovation, and technological transfers and diffusion, and promote macro-economic stability in a way that sets the pace for other partnerships in Africa, including through greater South-South cooperation.

3.2 We underscore the importance of private sector development, digital transformation, and youth and women entrepreneurship as strategies for implementing the priority areas of TICAD 7. In this context, we welcome the active participation of private companies from both Japan and Africa in TICAD 7. We consider the continued involvement of the private sector to be an essential element of the TICAD process going forward, and commit to strengthening the enabling environment for doing business and further encouraging impact investment that creates wealth.

3.3 We believe that TICAD 7 should further strengthen partnerships among all stakeholders-public sector, private sector, civil society, academia and think tanks, and that strengthening public-private partnerships is a priority. In this regard, we value the contribution of civil society organizations in TICAD 7 and welcome its continuation. We also acknowledge the important role of social networks, sport, and cultural exchanges in strengthening people-to-people connectivity.

3.4 Knowing that Africa is the region with the highest rate of return on foreign direct investment inflows globally, we will work together to attract foreign investors to Africa's priority sectors. We welcome the G20 consensus on macro-economic stability as stipulated in the G20 Osaka Leaders' Declaration and the G20 Principles for Quality Infrastructure Investment.

3.5 We acknowledge that TICAD 7 builds on gains from TICAD V and VI to ensure consistency and continuity. In this regard, we confirm the importance of the following the three (3) pillars of TICAD 7 and recognize the interconnections between them and the overall theme.

4.0 The Three Pillars

4.1 Accelerating economic transformation and improving business environment

through innovation and private sector engagement

4.1.1 We recognize the importance of economic diversification and industrialization, as well as macro-economic stability, in achieving inclusive and sustainable growth, and acknowledge that international trade and investment are important engines of growth, productivity, innovation, job creation and sustainable development. We strive to realize a free, fair, non-discriminatory, transparent, predictable and stable trade and investment environment and to keep our markets open. We also strive to ensure a level playing field to foster an enabling business environment. We acknowledge that innovation is an important driver for economic growth that can also contribute to advancing the SDGs and enhancing inclusiveness. We further recognize that connectivity, technology and innovation are critical to economic transformation, job creation, improved productivity and competitiveness, and the emergence of new opportunities in all sectors of the economy. We welcome the AfCFTA and the prospects it offers for deepening regional integration and enlarging markets, promoting trade facilitation, transforming agriculture and developing value chains. We commit to supporting the full implementation of the AfCFTA through measures that concretely link the African private sector with its counterparts in Japan, in order to achieve these objectives. We recognize the complementary roles of bilateral and regional free trade agreements which are World Trade Organization (WTO)-consistent. We recognize that infrastructure is a key driver of economic growth and prosperity. We trust that quality infrastructure, including transport, trade corridors, and formulation and implementation of Master Plans for urban development, support to projects with structural impact, with special focus on smart and green cities and special economic zones, increased access to sources of energy, particularly renewable, including solar energy, geothermal and hydro energy, and effective regional energy markets, expanded ICT and broadband connectivity, and modern postal network can help maximize sustainable economic, social and development impacts including in land locked countries. We believe that quality infrastructure, that guarantees affordability with respect to life-cycle costs, is fundamental for sustainable economic transformation.

4.1.2 We recognize the role of the private sector in Africa's development, and the linkages between the private sector, connectivity, technology and innovation. We welcome the Japan Business Council for Africa established by the Government of Japan and the private sector to encourage and facilitate business interaction between Japan and African Union Member States, including through private sector from other countries. We encourage initiatives such as the G20 Compact with Africa. We appreciate the business training provided through the African Business Education Initiative for Youth (ABE Initiative), and commit to strengthening job training as well as micro, small and medium sized enterprises on the continent, recognizing they are the primary vehicle for job creation and entrepreneurship, including of youth and women. We welcome efforts to support women entrepreneurship through financial and technical assistance. We also welcome efforts by the international community to de-risk private investment, particularly for infrastructure and productive sectors. We commit to working together to promote a conducive business environment, accelerate inclusive industrialization, enhance domestic resource mobilization, and strengthen public finance and macro- economic stability. We further commit to strengthening capacities in the field of trade negotiation and responsible and sustainable business practices, including the development of an AU corporate social responsibility strategy, and to support impact investments to widen business opportunities and decent jobs including for youth and women in line with the aspirations and goals of the AU Agenda 2063 and Agenda 2030.

4.1.3 Furthermore, we reaffirm the importance of supporting agricultural transformation through promoting better-quality, higher-value products, and developing food value chains through the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) to improve food security and livelihoods and accelerate Africa's economic growth and diversification, given that more than half of the continent's population is engaged in agriculture and agri-business. We also recognize the importance of the sustainable blue economy in harnessing the full economic potential of the oceans, seas, lakes, rivers and other water resources in accelerating economic growth and placing people at the center of sustainable development. We further underscore the need to galvanize bilateral, regional and international stakeholders' collaboration in maritime security including the fight against piracy, illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing and other maritime crimes, and maintaining a rules-based maritime order in accordance with the principles of international law. We take good note of the initiative of a free and open Indo-Pacific announced by Prime Minister Shinzo Abe at TICAD VI in Nairobi.

4.2 Deepening sustainable and resilient society

4.2.1 We acknowledge the important role of connectivity in terms of people, institutions and countries, as well as entrepreneurship, science, technology and innovation (STI) for SDGs in building sustainable and resilient societies. We recognize that action is required on many fronts to build peace, reduce poverty, promote human security, improve livelihoods, facilitate inclusion, withstand shocks, manage rapid urbanization and promote social cohesion. We support the implementation of the Africa Union first Strategy for Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment, acknowledging the close linkages between human capital and sustainable and resilient societies, including through the empowerment of youth and women. We reaffirm our commitment to education at all stages and to accelerating research and development including, through the Pan African University (PAU), particularly in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), as a key driver for achieving the AU Agenda 2063 and SDGs. We also commit to developing the innovation, entrepreneurship and digital-including artificial intelligence-skills that young people and women need to thrive in a technologically- driven world. We commit to working together to bridge human capital development and gender gaps and reduce urban-rural inequalities in Africa.

4.2.2 We acknowledge that health, water, sanitation, hygiene and nutrition are fundamental elements of human capital development and reiterate our commitment to promoting universal health coverage (UHC) in Africa as agreed at TICAD VI. We will reinforce primary health care and promote resilient health systems including sustainable domestic health financing through enhanced collaboration between health and finance authorities to increase domestic resources for health. We recognize that controlling communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, polio and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) is critical. We acknowledge the progress made by the African Union's Centres for Disease Control and aim to strengthen its role in prevention and control of communicable diseases including through immunization. We also recognize that managing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and controlling zoonotic diseases are emerging as new challenges. We commit to strengthening national and regional capacity for preparedness, early warning and rapid response to health emergencies and any epidemic outbreaks, including through research and development in accordance with the principle of prevention. We call on all stakeholders including private sector to be engaged and encourage greater alignment and coherence between global, continental and country health programs.

4.2.3 We reiterate that while Africa contributes the least to greenhouse gas emissions, the continent bears severe impacts of climate change and it is least prepared to manage and respond to climate change risks. The recurring droughts and desertification in the Sahel, the Horn of Africa and Southern Africa, that also regularly hit the South West Indian Ocean countries and Southern and Eastern Africa, underscore the devastating impact of climate change. We recognize that climate change could be a cause of social instability which could impact peace and security. We call for increased international efforts toward climate change mitigation and adaptation, notably through the Initiative of the Triple A (Adaptation of African Agriculture) and recognize the need for a climate- smart approach to development, including effective and sustainable management and use of land, forest and water resources, and waste management. Further, we call for accelerated actions to increase development and productivity of climate-smart agriculture as well as for concerted efforts to develop climate-resilient infrastructure, that help mitigate, climate change and climate change induced phenomena; and support programmes for assisting African Union Member States, in particular Island States, to deal with this challenge. We confirm the importance of disaster risk reduction and management at the country, regional, continental, and global levels, as well as mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction and innovative disaster risk financing and insurance, and appreciate the support provided by the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. We emphasize the need to address other pressing environmental issues such as reducing marine plastic litter and pollution, IUU fishing, and promoting the utilization and sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity, clean water and sanitation, as well as waste management. We recognize the role of the African Union in providing early warning, risk profiling and risk transfer support to African Union Member States to better manage and reduce their disaster risks. We therefore call for increased collaboration with TICAD partners to access data and research and development opportunities in order to enhance the formulation of advanced models for better disaster risk management.

4.3 Strengthening peace and stability

4.3.1 We reiterate the importance of promoting human security and peace and stability including through a people-centered approach to development and by strengthening institutions at local, national and continental levels in order to address the root causes of conflict. We acknowledge the importance of effective institutions in upholding universal values such as fundamental freedoms, the rule of law and good governance, broadening democratic participation, bridging the urban-rural divide, closing the digital-gender gap, improving market access and giving voice to hitherto disadvantaged communities. Based on the humanitarian-development-peace-security nexus, we acknowledge the importance of conflict prevention and addressing the root causes of conflict. In this regard, we continue to improve service delivery, enhance social protection, expand crime prevention, combat gender-based violence, and empower vulnerable communities, especially women and youth. We recognize the role of technological innovation in providing more equitable access to information that fosters inclusion, voice and participation for sustainable peace and stability. We value Africa's ownership and efforts to prevent, manage and resolve conflicts and promote stability through the African Union African Governance Architecture (AGA) and the African Union African Peace and Security Architecture (APSA) and encourage support for their effective implementation. We invite the international community to deepen international collaboration in building and sustaining peace by mobilizing financial resources to this end.

4.3.2 We welcome the AU's decision to designate 2019 as the Year of Refugees, Returnees and Internally Displaced Persons; Towards Durable Solutions to Forced Displacement in Africa, and stress the generosity and responsibility with which AU Member States welcome refugees and the forward-looking policies they have adopted. We support a long-term development approach and durable solutions to strengthening the self-reliance and resilience of displaced populations and host communities, in line with agreed global commitments.

4.3.3 We encourage strict observance and full implementation of United Nations Security Council resolutions related to non-proliferation, including through effective import and export control and surveillance of light weapons as well as illicit financial and other activities, and countermeasures against terrorism and violent-extremism and radicalization.

5.0 Continuity in TICAD's Progress and Priorities

5.1 We confirm that the TICAD process will continue to support inclusive and sustainable development on the African continent by working across the three (3) pillars, namely economic, social and peace and stability, and that previously endorsed initiatives will continue to be implemented, even as TICAD evolves to meet changing circumstances and take advantage of new opportunities.

5.2 We also endorse commitments previously made regarding Africa's enhanced role in global governance and development architecture. In keeping with previous declarations, we reaffirm our determination to urgently reform UN bodies, including the Security Council, and will maintain political momentum through enhanced dialogue to find the best approach. We stress the importance of promoting regional and international efforts related to maritime security, including piracy, illegal fishing and other maritime crimes, maintaining a rules-based maritime order in accordance with the principles of international law as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). We also underscore the importance of strengthening maritime security and safety through international and regional cooperation, as reflected in 2050 Africa's Integrated Maritime Strategy (2050 AIM Strategy), in accordance with international maritime laws.

6.0 Yokohama Plan of Actions 2019 and Way Forward

6.1 Yokohama Plan of Actions 2019

We commit to the "Yokohama Plan of Actions 2019" while continuing to

implement measures under the TICAD V Yokohama Action Plan 2013-2017 and the TICAD VI Nairobi Implementation Plan in support of priority areas under the above- mentioned three (3) pillars. We reaffirm that the initiatives and actions we take will be aligned whenever possible with African and international frameworks such as the AU Agenda 2063 and its First Ten Year Implementation Plan, as well as with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and its Paris Agreement on climate change, the 2015 Addis Ababa Action Agenda for Financing Development, the New Urban Agenda, the Third Industrial Development Decade for Africa, and the Sendai Framework on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR).

6.2 Follow–up mechanism

We affirm that effective promotion of the measures under the three (3) pillars calls

for an efficient follow-up mechanism, underpinned by efficient reporting systems based on the principles of African ownership and international partnership. The TICAD follow- up mechanism consisting of the Joint Secretariat, the Joint Monitoring Committee, and regular and periodic follow up meetings as well as the Summit, has a substantial role to play in reviewing overall progress of the TICAD process, sharing experiences and best practices, and ensuring robust results within the timeframe of the partnership.

6.3 Way forward

6.3.1 Building on more than 25 years of experience, we are now strategically positioning TICAD to reflect and respond to the rapidly changing global environment and the dynamic development landscape in Africa.

6.3.2 We will build on the achievements of the TICAD V Yokohama Action Plan 2013-2017 and the TICAD VI Nairobi Implementation Plan and incorporate the measures elaborated in the document Yokohama Plan of Actions 2019. We will work together to further evolve this process to more effectively reflect Africa's developmental needs and the overall ownership of its development agenda and programs.

6.3.3 TICAD 8 will be held in Africa in 2022. Follow-up meetings at ministerial and senior official levels will be held before TICAD 8.

6.3.4 We express our appreciation to His Excellency Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and the Government of Japan for hosting TICAD 7 and thank the people of Japan, especially Yokohama city and its people, for the warm hospitality extended to the participants of TICAD 7.